past half century
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Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Premanshu Kumar Singh ◽  
Aarti Patel ◽  
Anastasia Kaffenes ◽  
Catherine Hord ◽  
Delaney Kesterson ◽  

Advances in cancer research over the past half-century have clearly determined the molecular origins of the disease. Central to the use of molecular signatures for continued progress, including rapid, reliable, and early diagnosis is the use of biomarkers. Specifically, extracellular vesicles as biomarker cargo holders have generated significant interest. However, the isolation, purification, and subsequent analysis of these extracellular vesicles remain a challenge. Technological advances driven by microfluidics-enabled devices have made the challenges for isolation of extracellular vesicles an emerging area of research with significant possibilities for use in clinical settings enabling point-of-care diagnostics for cancer. In this article, we present a tutorial review of the existing microfluidic technologies for cancer diagnostics with a focus on extracellular vesicle isolation methods.

2022 ◽  
Mehdi Mohammadi Ghaleni ◽  
Saeed Sharafi ◽  
Seyed-Mohammad Hosseini-Moghari ◽  
Jalil Helali ◽  
Ebrahim Asadi Oskouei

Abstract The present study compares the main characteristics (intensity, duration, and frequency) of meteorological drought events in the four climates (Hyperarid, Arid, Semiarid, and Humid) of Iran. For this purpose, three drought indices, including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), were employed at the timescales of 1-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-months. These indices were compared by utilizing long-term data of 41 synoptic meteorological stations for the recent half century, 1969–2019. The long-term analysis of drought indices indicates that the duration and intensity of drought events have temporally risen after the 1998–99 period. Iran has experienced the longest duration (40 months) of extreme drought during Dec 98–Mar 02 and Jan 18–Mar 18, respectively. Spatial patterns demonstrate that drought intensity uniformly increased in SPI1 to SPI12, and SPEI3 to SPEI12, from humid and semiarid to arid and hyperarid regions. The average drought duration in studied stations for SPI, SPEI and RDI indices equaled 9, 12, and 9 months, respectively. In addition, mean drought frequencies are calculated at 14, 17, and 13 percent for SPI, SPEI and RDI indices, respectively. Generally, SPEI compared to SPI and RDI shows greater duration and frequency of drought events, particularly in arid and hyperarid regions. The research shows the crucial role of climatic variables in detecting drought characteristics and the importance of selecting appropriate drought indices in various climates.

PLoS Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e3001520
Thomas Stoeger ◽  
Luís A. Nunes Amaral

Throughout the last 2 decades, several scholars observed that present day research into human genes rarely turns toward genes that had not already been extensively investigated in the past. Guided by hypotheses derived from studies of science and innovation, we present here a literature-wide data-driven meta-analysis to identify the specific scientific and organizational contexts that coincided with early-stage research into human genes throughout the past half century. We demonstrate that early-stage research into human genes differs in team size, citation impact, funding mechanisms, and publication outlet, but that generalized insights derived from studies of science and innovation only partially apply to early-stage research into human genes. Further, we demonstrate that, presently, genome biology accounts for most of the initial early-stage research, while subsequent early-stage research can engage other life sciences fields. We therefore anticipate that the specificity of our findings will enable scientists and policymakers to better promote early-stage research into human genes and increase overall innovation within the life sciences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
Kitty To ◽  
Ryan Lange

The understanding of shyness and social withdrawal has been built over the past half century with research looking into factors that cause this in children. However, not many mention the natural phenomenon of if children mimic social confidence from their adult figure. This study used correlation analyses to investigate the relations between parents’ behaviors and attitudes and their children’s social confidence and ability. Data were from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1986 Child and Young Adult Survey Mother Supplement. Results showed weak correlation between social confidence and outings frequency, either with family and friends or not. However, children who were spanked more frequently positively correlated with their mothers rating them to be more high strung. Furthermore, all hypotheses showed results that follow the direction of the prediction, so further investigation into the topic may show more significant correlation or a causation relationship of the variables.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1329
Richard Butler

Indigenous tourism is a term commonly used to describe tourism that involves indigenous peoples or first nations in tourism. In recent years, research attention on this topic has broadened and expanded greatly, reflecting both increased involvement of indigenous peoples and their more active participation in controlling and utilising a widening range of tourism and economic development. This more active participation has taken tourism beyond its traditional role as a limited source of employment and economic development to a stage at which tourism is being utilised as an agent to improve the indigenous political position with respect to controlling a wider range of development and strengthening regional and national identities. The paper briefly reviews research on indigenous tourism over the past half-century, noting the increase in volume and the changing nature and role of research on tourism involving indigenous peoples, but also longstanding neglect of some elements of economic development, which are discussed in more detail It also explores current and likely future issues needing research attention in the light of changing motivations for participation in indigenous tourism, and the spread of indigenous tourism beyond traditional areas into activities more associated with metropolitan and mass tourist markets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 603-603
Ginny Natale ◽  
Manacy Pai

Abstract An increasing number of people with chronic medical disabilities are living longer and into old age due to the growing medical and technological advancements over the past half century. We used grounded theory to examine the lived experience of aging “with” a disability in a non-elderly population. On average, participants were 37 years of age at the time of interview. The average time since diagnosis was 17 years and ranged from 3 to 34 years. Many worked full-time outside of the home and some held advanced or graduate degrees. Of the 35 participants interviewed, three-quarters expressed worries about the future and aging, specifically related to physical limitations of having CD. The other 25% talked about learning to accept the diagnosis and ‘moving forward’ with their life as they age. All participants described the difficulties of fatigue and energy limitations. Planning of life was limited to 24 hours — a direct consequence of functional limitations of a relapsing-remitting disease. The most prominent theme that emerged from participants’ narratives to explain aging invisibly with a chronic illness was quantifying energy into ‘spoons’, a way of measuring the stock of their energy on any given day. These findings translate into important insights into the process of aging for those who live and age “with” Crohn’s as their everyday lives are immersed in managing the varying whims of this illness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (4) ◽  
pp. 760-775
Robert Edgar

AbstractThe recent racial reckoning has challenged scholars to recover Black voices that have been erased from historical accounts. This essay is my reflections on the challenges I faced in conducting research on African voices in politically and racially charged settings in Lesotho and South Africa over the past half century. After the political atmosphere began changing in South Africa in 1990, I served the individuals and communities I write about by rectifying historical injustices such as returning a holy relic to a religious group, the Israelites, and facilitating the return of remains of Nontetha Nkwenkwe from a pauper’s grave in Pretoria to her home.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1897
Ashim K. Bagchi ◽  
Akshi Malik ◽  
Gauri Akolkar ◽  
Davinder S. Jassal ◽  
Pawan K. Singal

Doxorubicin (Dox) is known to cause heart failure in some cancer patients. Despite extensive studies over the past half century, the subcellular basis of Dox-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC) is still elusive. Earlier, we suggested that Dox causes a delayed activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) which may promote mitochondrial Bax activity leading to cardiomyocyte death. As a follow up, using NO donor, S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP), and/or NOS inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), we now show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes inflammation through iNOS/NO-induced TLR2 activation. In vivo Dox treatment increased mitochondrial iNOS to promote ER stress as there was an increase in Bip (Grp78) response, proapoptotic CHOP (DDIT3) and ER-mediated Caspase 12 activation. Increased iNOS activity is associated with an increase in TLR2 and TNF-α receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2). These two together with NF-κB p105/50 expression and a synergistic support through ER stress, promote inflammatory response in the myocardium leading to cell death and ultimately fostering DIC conditions. In the presence of NOS inhibitor, such detrimental effects of Dox were inhibited, suggesting iNOS/NO as key mediators of Dox-induced inflammatory as well as apoptotic responses.

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