Oral Anticoagulants
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Ilia Makedonov ◽  
Susan R Kahn ◽  
Jameel Abdulrehman ◽  
Sam Schulman ◽  
Aurélien Delluc ◽  

The post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is chronic venous insufficiency secondary to a prior deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It is the most common complication of VTE and, while not fatal, it can lead to chronic, unremitting symptoms as well as societal and economic consequences. The cornerstone of PTS treatment lies in its prevention after DVT. Specific PTS preventative measures include the use of elastic compression stockings (ECS) and pharmacomechanical catheter directed thrombolysis (PCDT). However, the efficacy of these treatments has been questioned by large RCTs. So far, anticoagulation, primarily prescribed to prevent DVT extension and recurrence, appears to be the only unquestionably effective treatment for the prevention of PTS. In this literature review we present pathophysiological, biological, radiological and clinical data supporting the efficacy of anticoagulants to prevent PTS and the possible differential efficacy among available classes of anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonists (VKA), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs)). Data suggest that LMWHs and DOACs are superior to VKAs, but no head-to-head comparison is available between DOACs and LMWHs. Owing to their potentially greater anti-inflammatory properties, LMWHs could be superior to DOACs. This finding may be of interest particularly in patients with extensive DVT at high risk of moderate to severe PTS, but needs to be confirmed by a dedicated RCT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5673
Irit Ayalon-Dangur ◽  
Yakov Vega ◽  
Miriam Rozi Israel ◽  
Alon Grossman ◽  
Galia Spectre ◽  

Introduction: Randomized controlled trials that compared direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), demonstrated both efficacy and safety of DOACs. The aim of the current study was to compare DOACs to VKA for the treatment of VTE in the elderly, in a real-life setting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in Rabin Medical Center encompassing a 7-year period. Hospitalized patients >65 years, with a diagnosis of VTE discharged with DOACs or VKA were included. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, major bleeding, recurrent VTEs and hospitalizations throughout the follow-up period of one year. Results: A total of 603 patients were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 79.6 ± 8.5 years. The primary composite outcome occurred in 74.6% and 56.7% of the patients in the VKA group and DOACs group, respectively, hazard ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.76, in favor of the DOACs group. In a matched cohort analysis, the results were the same as the original analysis. Conclusion: In the elderly population, treatment of VTE with DOACs was associated with a lower rate of the composite outcome. DOACs are safe and effective for elderly patients with VTE.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Eve Cariou ◽  
Kevin Sanchis ◽  
Khailène Rguez ◽  
Virginie Blanchard ◽  
Stephanie Cazalbou ◽  

Background: Atrial arrhythmia (AA) is common among patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA), who have an increased risk of intracardiac thrombus. The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic impact of vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in patients with CA.Methods and Results: 273 patients with CA and history of AA with long term anticoagulation−69 (25%) light chain amyloidosis (AL), 179 (66%) wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) and 25 (9%) variant transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv)–were retrospectively included between January 2012 and July 2020. 147 (54%) and 126 (46%) patients received VKA and DOAC, respectively. Patient receiving VKA were more likely to have AL with renal dysfunction, higher NT-proBNP and troponin levels. Patients with ATTRwt were more likely to receive DOAC therapy. There were more bleeding complications among patients with VKA (20 versus 10%; P = 0.013) but no difference for stroke events (4 vs. 2%; P = 0.223), as compared to patients with DOAC. A total of 124 (45%) patients met the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality: 96 (65%) and 28 (22%) among patients with VKAs and DOACs, respectively (P < 0.001). After multivariate analysis including age and renal function, VKA was no longer associated with all-cause mortality.Conclusion: Among patients with CA and history of AA receiving oral anticoagulant, DOACs appear to be at least as effective and safe as VKAs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 602-607
Benyamna I. ◽  
Bouzid F. ◽  
El Mousadik A. ◽  
Alif N. ◽  

Because of their cost and the large amount of experience, vitamin k antagonists are widely prescribed in the world for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. However, cases of resistance to VKA exist, although they are difficult to authenticate. Direct oral anticoagulants DOA represent a good alternative. We report a case of true hemodynamic and genetic resistance to VKA in which rivaroxaban was the solution.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260585
Daisuke Yanagisawa ◽  
Koichiro Abe ◽  
Hirohito Amano ◽  
Shogo Komatsuda ◽  
Taku Honda ◽  

Several direct oral anticoagulants have been developed to prevent cardiogenic thrombosis in patients with atrial fibrillation, on the other hand, have the complication of bleeding. Since clinical course after bleeding with direct oral anticoagulant remains unclear, the present retrospective cohort study was to clarify the course after hemorrhage among patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants. Among all 2005 patients prescribed dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or edoxaban between April 2011 and June 2017, subjects comprised 96 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who experienced relevant bleeding during direct oral anticoagulant therapy (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2 or above). The clinical course after hemorrhage was reviewed to examine whether rebleeding or thrombotic events occurred up to the end of December 2019. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the most frequent cause of initial bleeding (57 patients, 59%). Rebleeding occurred in 11 patients (4.5%/year), with gastrointestinal bleeding in 10 and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 1. All rebleeding occurred in patients who resumed anticoagulation therapy. Another significant factor related with rebleeding included past history of gastrointestinal bleeding. On the other hand, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events occurred in 6 patients older than 75 years old or more (2.5%/year), with systemic thrombosis in 4 and cardiac death in 2. All 4 patients with systemic thrombosis withheld anticoagulants after index bleeding, although only 10 patients withheld anticoagulation therapy. Rebleeding should be taken care of when anticoagulants are resumed after bleeding, particularly among patients who initially experienced gastrointestinal bleeding. Systemic thrombosis occurred at a high rate when anticoagulant therapy was withheld after bleeding.

VASA ◽  
2021 ◽  
Henrike Barenbrock ◽  
Jannik Feld ◽  
Antonia Lakomek ◽  
Kristina Volkery ◽  
Jeanette Köppe ◽  

Summary: Background: Sex-related differences may influence the outcome of endovascular revascularization (EVR) in patients with lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) even under optimized healthcare supply. Patients and methods: LEAD patients who underwent EVR at the Department of Cardiology I – Coronary and Peripheral Vascular Disease, Heart Failure, University Hospital Muenster, Germany between 2014 and 2016 were included into the retrospective study. Detailed information on risk factors and co-morbidities, medication, LEAD related measures, and interventional parameters were assessed. Outcome defined as technical success rate, complications, and mortality was analyzed up to 12 months follow-up. Results: In total, 165 female and 437 male LEAD patients were included. Women and men presented with comparable severity of LEAD in terms of critical limb threatening ischemia (46.2%), wound status (34.9%), and amputation rate (9.6%, all n.s.) at index. Intake of platelet inhibitors (65.8% female vs. 70.0% male), oral anticoagulants (21.3% vs. 25.4%), and statins (65.6% vs. 76.0%) was observed less frequently in female patients. Against the background of high technical success (85%), in-hospital death (0.8%), severe adverse cardiac (MCE; 1.7%), and limb events (MALE; 6.1%) occurred at low rates in either sex. Adjusted long-term mortality was not affected by patients’ sex (female HR 0.755; p=0.312). Conclusions: Despite critical LEAD stages in every second patient, EVR was performed safe with high technical success rates in female and male patients. Long-term outcomes were observed at comparatively low rates in both sexes at the specialized vascular center. During aftercare, supply with statin therapy turned out improvable particularly in female LEAD patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
Thilina Gunawardena

Thrombin inhibitors and direct factor Xa inhibitors represent a major breakthrough in the field of anticoagulation pharmacotherapy. These novel agents have replaced warfarin as the oral anticoagulant of choice in certain indications, as they possess equal or superior efficacy and better safety profiles. They have a quick onset of action, predictable pharmacokinetic properties and minimal drug and food interactions. So they do not require frequent blood monitoring and dose adjustments as with warfarin. Considering all the advantages, there seems to be a rapid increase in the number of patients who are started on these novel anticoagulants. In this review, we highlight the pharmacology of these direct oral anticoagulants and the evidence-based indications for their use. We aim to provide a clinical overview for the non-specialist who may be called upon to manage a patient who is currently on one of these novel anticoagulants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Syeda Fatima Naqvi ◽  
Amir Humza Sohail ◽  
Dhairya A. Lakhani ◽  
James Maurer ◽  
Sarah Sofka ◽  

Rationale. Previous data suggest that warfarin may worsen outcomes in IPF in patients with no indication for anticoagulation when compared to placebo. However, warfarin continues to be widely used for cardiac and thromboembolic indications in this patient population due to unavailability of data comparing warfarin with other anticoagulants in patients with IPF. Objectives. We studied the safety and efficacy of warfarin compared to direct acting oral anticoagulant use in patients with IPF. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with IPF who were prescribed warfarin or direct acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for cardiac or thromboembolic indications and followed at our institute for their care. Univariate tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used for assessing association of variables with outcomes. Results. A total of 73 patients were included in the study with 28 and 45 patients in the warfarin and DOAC groups, respectively. Univariable analysis revealed a significant difference in mortality in one year between warfarin and DOAC groups (7/28 vs. 3/45, p value 0.027). Significantly more patients in the warfarin group suffered an exacerbation that required hospitalization within one year (9/28 vs. 5/45, p value 0.026). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that anticoagulation with warfarin was independently associated with mortality at one-year follow-up (OR: 77.4, 95% CI: 5.94–409.3, p value: 0.007). Conclusion. In our study of patients with IPF requiring anticoagulants, we noted statistically significant higher mortality with warfarin anticoagulation when compared to DOAC use. Further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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