oral anticoagulants
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi-hu Yi ◽  
Song Gong ◽  
Tian-lun Gong ◽  
Ling-yun Zhou ◽  
Can Hu ◽  

Background: There is controversy over whether use of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) associates with increased hemorrhage risk compared with non-NOAC. Meanwhile, determining which NOAC to use remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the evidence about NOACs in venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention for patients with total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA).Methods: We searched RCTs assessing NOACs for VTE prophylaxis in adults undergoing THA and TKA in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane up to May 2021. Primary outcomes were VTE [included deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)], major VTE, and major bleeding. The rank probabilities of each treatment were summarized by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve area (SUCRA).Results: 25 RCTs with 42,994 patients were included. Compared with non-NOAC, NOACs were associated with a decreased risk of VTE (RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.55–0.84) and major VTE (RR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35–0.76). Additionally, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban but not dabigatran and betrixaban, did confer a higher efficacy compared with non-NOAC. None of the individual NOACs increased the risk of bleeding, while apixaban and betrixaban were even associated with a decreased risk of bleeding. In the comparison of different NOACs, rivaroxaban was associated with the greatest benefits in VTE (SUCRA = 79.6), DVT (SUCRA = 88.8), and major VTE (SUCRA = 89.9) prevention. Furthermore, subgroup analysis confirmed that NOACs associated with a higher efficacy tendency in patients with follow-up duration <60 days than follow-up duration ≥60 days.Conclusion: Evidence suggests that NOACs exert more benefits on VTE prophylaxis, and none of the individual NOACs increased hemorrhage compared with non-NOAC. Among various NOACs, rivaroxaban is recommended in patients with lower bleeding risk, and apixaban is recommended in patients with higher bleeding risk.Systematic Review Registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/], identifier [CRD42021266890].

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ana Sánchez-Fuentes ◽  
José Miguel Rivera-Caravaca ◽  
Raquel López-Gálvez ◽  
Francisco Marín ◽  
Vanessa Roldán

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are a therapeutic option to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In fact, NOACs have become the recommended choice by international clinical practice guidelines over vitamin K antagonists (VKA), because of their efficacy and safety profile, especially in newly initiated patients. The more predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of this family of drugs allows preventing anticoagulation drug monitoring. Furthermore, NOACs have significantly fewer drug and food interactions in comparison with VKAs. Despite this, there are no studies that compare the effects on the quality of anticoagulation of NOACs with the intake of potential interactions drugs of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 (CYP). This review brings an overview of NOACs pharmacokinetics profile and their potential drug-food interactions. We also briefly discuss the potential role of prebiotics and probiotics in patients under therapy with NOACs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Mohammed Farhan A Alfarhan

Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy is recommended for reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after a total hip replacement (THR). However, it is not clear which anticoagulant is preferable. Hence, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials (RDBCTs) were conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of enoxaparin in comparison with newer oral anticoagulants for the prevention of VTE after THR. The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed/Medline databases were used for PICO search strategy. Relative risks (RR) of symptomatic VTE, clinically relevant bleeding, mortality, and a net clinical endpoint were estimated employing a random effect meta-analysis. ITC and RevMan software were used for indirect and direct comparisons, respectively. Nine RDBCTs comprising 24,584 patients were included. As compared to enoxaparin, a reduced risk for symptomatic VTE was observed with rivaroxaban (confidence interval [CI]: 0.32–0.77; RR: 0.46%) and comparable with apixaban (0.12–1.26; 0.42%) and dabigatran (0.22–2.20; 0.70%). Contrarily to enoxaparin, a greater risk for clinically relevant bleeding was observed with rivaroxaban (1.03–1.48; 1.23%), comparable with dabigatran (0.96–1.33; 1.10%) and reduced with apixaban (0.19–5.66; 0.96%). In indirect or direct comparisons, the interventions did not differ on the net clinical endpoint. In conclusion, the findings of this meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants as compared to enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE after total hip replacement surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sylvie Perreault ◽  
Alice Dragomir ◽  
Robert Côté ◽  
Aurélie Lenglet ◽  
Simon de Denus ◽  

Aims: Observational studies of various dose levels of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) found that a high proportion of patients received a dose lower than the target dose tested in randomized controlled trials. There is a need to compare low-dose DOACs with warfarin or other DOACs on effectiveness and safety.Methods: Using administrative data from Quebec province, Canada, we built a cohort of new warfarin or DOAC users discharged from hospital between 2011 and 2017. We determined CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores, and comorbidities for 3-year prior cohort entry. The primary effectiveness endpoint was a composite of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and secondary outcomes included a safety composite of major bleeding (MB) events and effectiveness composite (stroke/SE, death) at 1-year follow-up. We contrasted each low-dose DOAC with warfarin or other DOACs as references using inverse probability of treatment weighting to estimate marginal Cox hazard ratios (HRs).Results: The cohort comprised 22,969 patients (mean age: 80–86). We did not find a significant risk reduction for the stroke/SE primary effectiveness endpoint for DOACs vs. warfarin; however, we observed a significantly lower risk for low-dose dabigatran vs. warfarin (HR [95%CI]: 0.59 [0.42–0.81]) for effectiveness composite, mainly due to a lower death rate. The differences in effectiveness and safety composites between low-dose rivaroxaban vs. warfarin were not significant. However, low-dose apixaban had a better safety composite (HR: 0.68 [0.53–0.88]) vs. warfarin. Comparisons of dabigatran vs. apixaban showed a lower risk of stroke/SE (HR: 0.53 [0.30–0.93]) and a 2-fold higher risk of MB. The MB risk was higher for rivaroxaban than for apixaban (HR: 1.58 [1.09–2.29]).Conclusions: The results of this population-based study suggest that low-dose dabigatran has a better effective composite than warfarin. Compared with apixaban, low-dose dabigatran had a better effectiveness composite but a worse safety profile. Low-dose apixaban had a better safety composite than warfarin and other low-dose DOACs. Given that the comparative effectiveness and safety seem to vary from one DOAC to another, pharmacokinetic data for specific populations are now warranted.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262580
Christina Christersson ◽  
Claes Held ◽  
Angelo Modica ◽  
Johan Westerbergh ◽  
Gorav Batra

Aims To describe the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) and change in antithrombotic treatment patterns during follow-up after valve intervention with a biological prosthesis or valvuloplasty. Methods and results All patients with history of AF or new-onset AF discharged alive after valvular intervention (biological prosthesis or valvuloplasty) between 2010–2016 in Sweden were included (n = 7,362). Information about comorbidities was collected from national patient registers. Exposure to OAC was based on pharmacy dispensation data. In total 4,800 (65.2%) patients had a history of AF, and 2,562 (34.8%) patients developed new-onset AF, with 999 (39.0%) developing new-onset AF within 3 months after intervention. The proportion of patients with biological valve prosthesis was higher in patients with new-onset AF compared to history of AF (p<0.001). CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 was observed in 83.1% and 75.5% patients with history of AF and new-onset AF, respectively. Warfarin was more frequently dispensed than NOAC at discharge in patients with history of AF (43.9% vs 7.3%), and in patients with new-onset AF (36.6% vs 17.1%). Almost half of the AF population was not dispensed on any OAC at discharge (48.8% in patients with history of AF and 46.3% in patients with new-onset AF). Conclusion In this real world study of patients with AF and recent valvular intervention, risk of new-onset AF after valvular intervention is high emphasizing need for frequent rhythm monitoring after intervention. A considerable undertreatment with OAC was observed despite being indicated for the majority of the patients. Warfarin was the OAC most frequently dispensed.

Amir Kazerouninia ◽  
Justin Georgekutty ◽  
Payton Kendsersky ◽  
Ryan D. Byrne ◽  
Brendan Seto ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 831-836
A. S. Gerasimenko ◽  
O. V. Shatalova ◽  
V. S. Gorbatenko ◽  
V. I. Petrov

Aim. To study the frequency of prescribing antithrombotic agents in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in real clinical practice, to evaluate changes of prescriptions from 2012 till 2020.Material and methods. The medical records of inpatients (Form 003/y) with the diagnosis AF, hospitalized in the cardiological department were analyzed. According to the inclusion criteria, the patients were over 18 years of age, established diagnosis of non-valvular AF. There were two exclusion criteria: congenital and acquired valvular heart disease and prosthetic heart valves. In retrospective analysis we have included 263 case histories in 2012, 502 ones in 2016 and 524 in 2020. CHA2DS2-VASc score was used for individual stroke risk assessment in AF. The rational use of the antithrombotic therapy was evaluated according with current clinical practice guidelines at analyzing moment.Results. During period of observation the frequency of antiplatelet therapy significantly decreased from 25,5% to 5,5% (р<0.001), decreased the frequency of administration of warfarin from 71,9% to 18,3% (р<0.001). The frequency of use of direct oral anticoagulants increased in 2020 compared to 2016 (р<0.001). For patients with a high risk of stroke anticoagulant therapy was administered in 71.8% of cases in 2012, 88.5% in 2016 and 92.5% in 2020. Before discharge from hospital majority of patients (72%) achieved a desired minimum international normalized ratio (INR) from 2.0 to 3.0 in 2012. In 2016 and 2020 an only 33% and 40.6% of patients achieved INR (2.0-3.0).Conclusion. Doctors have become more committed to following clinical guidelines during the period of the investigation. In 2020 antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation was suitable according to current clinical guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Taku Honda ◽  
Koichiro Abe ◽  
Minoru Oda ◽  
Fumito Harada ◽  
Kyohei Maruyama ◽  

Abstract Although concomitant medications have been raised as a factor affecting hemorrhage during direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) therapy, details remain unelucidated. This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between concomitant medications with possible pharmacokinetic interactions and number of concomitant medications, and bleeding and embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation on DOACs. The subjects were 1,010 patients prescribed DOACs between April 2011 and June 2018. The study investigated their course between the first prescription and December 2018, including the presence or absence of clinically relevant bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Impacts of medications were evaluated by the general linear model with inverse probability-weighted propensity score. The observation period was 2,272 patient-years. The rate of bleeding was 4.7%/year, GIB was 2.8%/year, and MACCE was 2.0%/year. Taking 10 or more oral medications concurrently was a significant risk for GIB (hazard ratio, 2.046 [1.188–3.526]; p = 0.010). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was the only significant risk for GIB. Clinicians should be aware of gastrointestinal bleeding when using DOACs with patients taking more than 10 medications and/or NSAIDs.

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