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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leonardo Luiz Borges ◽  
Frederico Severino Martins ◽  
João José Franco ◽  
Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão ◽  
Wilson de Melo Cruvinel ◽  
...  

Abstract Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel, popularly known as jabuticaba, is rich in polyphenols. Phenolic compounds exhibit several biological properties, which reflect on biomarkers such as biochemical parameters. In the present study, we evaluated the plasmatic levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid of Chinese hamsters fed for 45 days with a regular diet or cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with a liquid extract obtained from P. cauliflora fruits residues standardized in ellagic acid and total phenolic compounds. The results showed that the concentrated extract obtained from jabuticaba residues increased the glycemia of animals fed with a regular diet and reduced the plasmatic uric acid levels of animals fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet. Since hyperuricemia is considered to be a significant risk factor of metabolic disorders and the principal pathological basis of gout, the liquid extract from P. cauliflora fruits residues would be a promising candidate as a novel hypouricaemic agent for further investigation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christopher S. Stauffer ◽  
Salem Samson ◽  
Alex Hickok ◽  
William F. Hoffman ◽  
Steven L. Batki

The increasing prevalence of illicit stimulant use among those in opioid treatment programs poses a significant risk to public health, stimulant users have the lowest rate of retention and poorest outcomes among those in addiction treatment, and current treatment options are limited. Oxytocin administration has shown promise in reducing addiction-related behavior and enhancing salience to social cues. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of intranasal oxytocin administered twice daily for 6 weeks to male Veterans with stimulant use disorder who were also receiving opioid agonist therapy and counseling (n = 42). There was no significant effect of oxytocin on stimulant use, stimulant craving, or therapeutic alliance over 6 weeks. However, participants receiving oxytocin (vs. placebo) attended significantly more daily opioid agonist therapy dispensing visits. This replicated previous work suggesting that oxytocin may enhance treatment engagement among individuals with stimulant and opioid use disorders, which would address a significant barrier to effective care.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Iren Johnsen ◽  
Ane Martine Tømmeraas

Abstract Background Although many lose a close friend each year, they are seldom the focus of grief research. However, these losses often cause severe and long-lasting reactions. Deaths among adolescents and young adults are also often caused by traumatic events, e.g. from accidents, suicides, and homicides, placing them at significant risk for complicated grief reactions. The focus of this paper is bereaved friends after the shootings at Utøya, Norway in 2011, which is among a few studies that focus on bereaved friends, exploring how attachment affects the grief process after the loss of a close friend. Methods This paper explores qualitative data from in-depth interviews with thirteen bereaved friends, conducted about 28 months after the loss. The interview sample consisted of eight females and five males, aged 18–31 years. The interviews were semi-structured, with a theme guide of 14 questions, and the method used for analyses was systematic text condensation. Results Two main themes were identified from the analyses of the interviews: Friendship and Grief, with the subordinate themes: The importance of the friendship, Longing and remembrance, How the loss has affected other relationships, How the loss has affected the friend’s daily lives, Processing of the grief and Not being family. For most of the bereaved friends the loss and the grief had a profound effect on them and their overall lives, from daily functioning in school or at work, to changes in attitudes, and the way they were met as bereaved. Conclusions The support, intimacy, and feelings of togetherness we share with our friends are of great importance and value for all people, but maybe especially for young people. When adolescents and young adults experience losses, their reactions are often intense and long-lasting, and especially complicated grief reactions can affect school performance and concentration, health, result in emotional problems; and disrupt development (e.g. identity formation and social skills). We don’t know much about the grief of bereaved friends and how their reactions can be explained. Thus, we hope that these findings could shed light on their grief reactions, and provide new knowledge on the short- and long-term psychological impact of losses of friends.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Junwon Lee ◽  
Hyun Goo Kang ◽  
Hae Rang Kim ◽  
Christopher Seungkyu Lee ◽  
Min Kim ◽  
...  

AbstractWe investigated the incidence and risk factors of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the fellow eye (FE) without significant drusen of patients with unilateral exudative macular neovascularization (MNV). In this retrospective study, 241 eligible patients who were followed-up for more than 3 years were enrolled. We analyzed the incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) of late AMD in the FE according to demographic and ophthalmologic variables. Hypopigmentation on color fundus photography (CFP) corresponds to shallow irregular RPE elevation (SIRE), so-called “double-layer sign” and/or “attenuation or disruption of RPE and/or ellipsoid zone” on OCT. The 5-year incidence of FE exudative MNV conversion was 8.6%. The 5-year incidence of FE exudative MNV of large hypopigmentation (≥ 0.5 disc area; DA) and small hypopigmentation (< 0.5 DA) on CFP, and SIRE (≥ 1000 µm) and small RPE elevation (< 1000 µm) on OCT were 36.2%, 14.2%, 55.0%, and 15.6%, respectively. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed that large hypopigmentation, small hypopigmentation, SIRE, and small RPE elevation showed HRs of 23.230, 8.037, 132.589, and 41.823 for FE exudative MNV occurrence, respectively. Hypopigmentation on CFP and SIRE on OCT could represent the same lesion. Even small hypopigmentation and small RPE elevation were significant risk factors for progression to exudative MNV.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sylvie Perreault ◽  
Alice Dragomir ◽  
Robert Côté ◽  
Aurélie Lenglet ◽  
Simon de Denus ◽  
...  

Aims: Observational studies of various dose levels of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) found that a high proportion of patients received a dose lower than the target dose tested in randomized controlled trials. There is a need to compare low-dose DOACs with warfarin or other DOACs on effectiveness and safety.Methods: Using administrative data from Quebec province, Canada, we built a cohort of new warfarin or DOAC users discharged from hospital between 2011 and 2017. We determined CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores, and comorbidities for 3-year prior cohort entry. The primary effectiveness endpoint was a composite of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and secondary outcomes included a safety composite of major bleeding (MB) events and effectiveness composite (stroke/SE, death) at 1-year follow-up. We contrasted each low-dose DOAC with warfarin or other DOACs as references using inverse probability of treatment weighting to estimate marginal Cox hazard ratios (HRs).Results: The cohort comprised 22,969 patients (mean age: 80–86). We did not find a significant risk reduction for the stroke/SE primary effectiveness endpoint for DOACs vs. warfarin; however, we observed a significantly lower risk for low-dose dabigatran vs. warfarin (HR [95%CI]: 0.59 [0.42–0.81]) for effectiveness composite, mainly due to a lower death rate. The differences in effectiveness and safety composites between low-dose rivaroxaban vs. warfarin were not significant. However, low-dose apixaban had a better safety composite (HR: 0.68 [0.53–0.88]) vs. warfarin. Comparisons of dabigatran vs. apixaban showed a lower risk of stroke/SE (HR: 0.53 [0.30–0.93]) and a 2-fold higher risk of MB. The MB risk was higher for rivaroxaban than for apixaban (HR: 1.58 [1.09–2.29]).Conclusions: The results of this population-based study suggest that low-dose dabigatran has a better effective composite than warfarin. Compared with apixaban, low-dose dabigatran had a better effectiveness composite but a worse safety profile. Low-dose apixaban had a better safety composite than warfarin and other low-dose DOACs. Given that the comparative effectiveness and safety seem to vary from one DOAC to another, pharmacokinetic data for specific populations are now warranted.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniele Linardi ◽  
Romel Mani ◽  
Angela Murari ◽  
Sissi Dolci ◽  
Loris Mannino ◽  
...  

BackgroundHypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) in aortic arch surgery has a significant risk of neurological injury despite the newest protective techniques and strategies. Nitric oxide (NO) could exert a protective role, reduce infarct area and increase cerebral perfusion. This study aims to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of NO administered in the oxygenator of selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SCP) during HCA.MethodsThirty male SD adult rats (450–550 g) underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), cooling to 22°C body core temperature followed by 30 min of HCA. Rats were randomized to receive SCP or SCP added with NO (20 ppm) administered through the oxygenator (SCP-NO). All animals underwent CPB-assisted rewarming to a target temperature of 35°C in 60 min. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and brain collected. Immunofluorescence analysis was performed in blind conditions.ResultsNeuroinflammation assessed by allograft inflammatory factor 1 or ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 expression, a microglia activation marker was lower in SCP-NO compared to SCP (4.11 ± 0.59 vs. 6.02 ± 0.18%; p &lt; 0.05). Oxidative stress measured by 8oxodG, was reduced in SCP-NO (0.37 ± 0.01 vs. 1.03 ± 0.16%; p &lt; 0.05). Brain hypoxic area extent, analyzed by thiols oxidation was attenuated in SCP-NO (1.85 ± 0.10 vs. 2.74 ± 0.19%; p &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, the apoptotic marker caspases 3 was significantly reduced in SCP-NO (10.64 ± 0.37 vs. 12.61 ± 0.88%; p &lt; 0.05).ConclusionsNitric oxide administration in the oxygenator during SCP and HCA improves neuroprotection by decreasing neuroinflammation, optimizing oxygen delivery by reducing oxidative stress and hypoxic areas, finally decreasing apoptosis.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 226
Author(s):  
Tamás Mester ◽  
György Szabó ◽  
Zsófi Sajtos ◽  
Edina Baranyai ◽  
Gergely Szabó ◽  
...  

Disposal sites without adequate engineering controls pose a significant risk to the environment. In the present study, the environmental hazards of an abandoned and unrecultivated liquid waste disposal are investigated with a special focus on soil and shallow groundwater contamination. After a period of operation from 1994 to 2010, when the wastewater collection of the municipality was regulated, the disposal site was subsequently decommissioned without further action. Eight monitoring wells have been established in the disposal basins and in the surrounding area to determine the contamination of the site. Sampling took place in the summers of 2020 and 2021. The results of the analysis of the soil and water samples collected showed a high level of contamination in the area. In the borehole profile of the infiltration basin, a well-developed leachate nitrate profile was observed, with a concentration above 3000 mg/kg NO3−. The soil phosphate content was also significant, with a value of over 1900 mg/kg in the upper 40 cm layer. Extremely high concentrations of ammonium (>45 mg/L) and organic matter (>90 mg/L) were detected in the groundwater of the basins, indicating that contaminated soil remains a major source of pollutants more than 10 years after closure. For all micro- and macroelements present in detectable concentrations, a significant increase was observed in the infiltration basin. Our results have revealed that the surroundings are also heavily contaminated. NO3− concentrations above the contamination limit were measured outside the basins. Recultivation of liquid waste disposal sites of similar characteristics is therefore strongly recommended.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward J. Boyko ◽  
Leila R. Zelnick ◽  
Barbara H. Braffett ◽  
Rodica Pop-Busui ◽  
Catherine C. Cowie ◽  
...  

Objective: Intensive glycemic control reduces risk of kidney, retinal, and neurologic complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D), but whether it reduces risk of lower extremity complications is unknown. We examined whether former intensive versus conventional glycemic control among Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) participants with T1D reduced the long-term risk of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) and lower extremity amputations (LEA) in the subsequent Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. <p>Research Design and Methods: DCCT participants [n=1441] completed 6.5 years on average of intensive vs conventional diabetes treatment, after which 1408 were enrolled in EDIC and followed annually over 23 years for DFU and LEA occurrences by physical examination. Multivariable Cox models estimated associations of DCCT treatment assignment and time-updated exposures with DFU or LEA. </p> <p>Results: Intensive versus conventional glycemic control was associated with a significant risk reduction for all DFU (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97), and a similar magnitude but nonsignificant risk reduction for first recorded DFU (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.03) and first LEA (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.36). In adjusted Cox models, clinical neuropathy, lower sural nerve conduction velocity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy were associated with higher DFU risk; eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>, albuminuria, and macular edema with higher LEA risk; and any retinopathy and greater time-weighted mean DCCT/EDIC HbA1c with higher risk of both outcomes (p<0.05).</p> <p>Conclusions: Early intensive glycemic control decreases long-term DFU risk, the most important antecedent in the causal pathway to LEA.</p>


Author(s):  
Nabeel Mansour ◽  
Osman Öcal ◽  
Mirjam Gerwing ◽  
Michael Köhler ◽  
Sinan Deniz ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose To compare the safety and outcome of transjugular versus percutaneous technique in recanalization of non-cirrhotic, non-malignant portal vein thrombosis. Methods We present a retrospective bicentric analysis of 21 patients with non-cirrhotic, non-malignant PVT, who were treated between 2016 and 2021 by interventional recanalization via different access routes (percutaneous [PT] vs. transjugular in transhepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS] technique). Complication rates with a focus on periprocedural bleeding and patency as well as outcome were compared. Results Of the 21 patients treated (median age 48 years, range of 19–78), seven (33%) patients had an underlying prothrombotic condition. While 14 (57%) patients were treated for acute PVT, seven (43%) patients had progressive thrombosis with known chronic PVT. Nine patients underwent initial recanalization via PT access and twelve via TIPS technique. There was no significant difference in complete technical success rate according to initial access route (55.5% in PT group vs. 83.3% in TIPS group, p = 0.331). However, creation of an actual TIPS was associated with higher technical success in restoring portal venous flow (86.6% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.030). 13 (61.9%) patients received thrombolysis. Nine (42.8%) patients experienced hemorrhagic complications. In a multivariate analysis, thrombolysis (p = 0.049) and PT access as the first procedure (p = 0.045) were significant risk factors for bleeding. Conclusion Invasive recanalization of the portal vein in patients with PVT and absence of cirrhosis and malignancy offers a good therapeutic option with high recanalization and patency rates. Bleeding complications result predominantly from a percutaneous access and high amounts of thrombolytics used; therefore, recanalization via TIPS technique should be favored.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kaixun Zhao ◽  
Ziyang Yang ◽  
Yin Zhou ◽  
Nanshan Xie ◽  
Disheng Lai ◽  
...  

Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of patients with pulmonary hypertension, and to design a digital model predicting the pregnancy outcome of patients and judge whether patients have the conditions to continue pregnancy. METHODS: The clinical data of patients with pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension hospitalized in Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The severity of pulmonary hypertension, the structural and functional indexes measured by echocardiography were compared, and the effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results showed that tricuspid regurgitation velocity (P<0.001), right ventricular diameter (P<0.05), right atrial diameter (P<0.05), pulmonary artery diameter (P<0.001) and cardiac function classification (P<0.001) were risk factors for maternal outcomes; Tricuspid regurgitation velocity (P<0.001) and structural changes of right heart were risk factors for neonatal outcomes. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, tricuspid regurgitation velocity (P<0.001), cardiac function (P<0.05) and superior inferior diameter of right atrium (P<0.05) were significant risk factors for maternal outcomes, while tricuspid regurgitation velocity (P<0.001) and superior inferior diameter of right atrium (P<0.05) were significant risk factors for neonatal outcomes. Using significant risk factors, a risk score system was established to predict the pregnancy outcome. CONCLUSION: in this study, we analyzed the clinical data of patients with pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension in our hospital in recent years, and found that the changes of right heart structure (the acceleration of tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and the increase of right atrium, right ventricular diameter, right ventricular outflow tract anteroposterior diameter and main pulmonary artery diameter), are influencing factors of pregnancy outcomes in patients with pulmonary hypertension. In addition, we preliminarily designed a risk score through multi factor analysis, which is helpful to predict the possible outcome of puerperium and neonatal outcomes of patients, and to provide some reference for clinicians and patients to make decisions on whether to continue pregnancy in clinical practice.


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