cerebrovascular events
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Karen M. Barclay ◽  
Monique F. Kilkenny ◽  
Sibilah J. Breen ◽  
Olivia F. Ryan ◽  
Kathleen L. Bagot ◽  

2022 ◽  
Taku Honda ◽  
Koichiro Abe ◽  
Minoru Oda ◽  
Fumito Harada ◽  
Kyohei Maruyama ◽  

Abstract Although concomitant medications have been raised as a factor affecting hemorrhage during direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) therapy, details remain unelucidated. This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between concomitant medications with possible pharmacokinetic interactions and number of concomitant medications, and bleeding and embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation on DOACs. The subjects were 1,010 patients prescribed DOACs between April 2011 and June 2018. The study investigated their course between the first prescription and December 2018, including the presence or absence of clinically relevant bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Impacts of medications were evaluated by the general linear model with inverse probability-weighted propensity score. The observation period was 2,272 patient-years. The rate of bleeding was 4.7%/year, GIB was 2.8%/year, and MACCE was 2.0%/year. Taking 10 or more oral medications concurrently was a significant risk for GIB (hazard ratio, 2.046 [1.188–3.526]; p = 0.010). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was the only significant risk for GIB. Clinicians should be aware of gastrointestinal bleeding when using DOACs with patients taking more than 10 medications and/or NSAIDs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Claudia Carrarini ◽  
V. Di Stefano ◽  
M. Russo ◽  
F. Dono ◽  
M. Di Pietro ◽  

AbstractPost-stroke arrhythmias represent a risk factor for complications and worse prognosis after cerebrovascular events. The aims of the study were to detect the rate of atrial fibrillation (AF) and other cardiac arrhythmias after acute ischemic stroke, by using a 7-day Holter ECG which has proved to be superior to the standard 24-h recording, and to evaluate the possible association between brain lesions and arrhythmias. One hundred and twenty patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke underwent clinical and neuroimaging assessment and were monitored with a 7-day Holter ECG. Analysis of the rhythm recorded over 7 days was compared to analysis limited at the first 24 h of monitoring. 7-day Holter ECG detected AF in 4% of patients, supraventricular extrasystole (SVEB) in 94%, ventricular extrasystole (VEB) in 88%, short supraventricular runs (SVRs) in 54%, supraventricular tachycardia in 20%, and bradycardia in 6%. Compared to the first 24 h of monitoring, 7-Holter ECG showed a significant higher detection for all arrhythmias (AF p = 0.02; bradycardia p = 0.03; tachycardia p = 0.0001; SVEB p = 0.0002; VEB p = 0.0001; SVRs p = 0.0001). Patients with SVRs and bradycardia were older (p = 0.0001; p = 0.035) and had higher CHA2DS2VASc scores (p = 0.004; p = 0.026) respectively, in the comparison with patients without these two arrhythmias. An association was found between SVEB and parietal (p = 0.013) and temporal (p = 0.013) lobe lesions, whereas VEB correlated with insular involvement (p = 0.002). 7-day Holter ECG monitoring proved to be superior as compared to 24-h recording for the detection of all arrhythmias, some of which (SVEB and VEB) were associated with specific brain areas involvement. Therefore, 7-day Holter ECG should be required as an effective first-line approach to improve both diagnosis and therapeutic management after stroke.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Daniela Schoene ◽  
Luiz G. Schnekenberg ◽  
Lars-Peder Pallesen ◽  
Jessica Barlinn ◽  
Volker Puetz ◽  

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it became apparent that, in addition to pulmonary infection, extrapulmonary manifestations such as cardiac injury and acute cerebrovascular events are frequent in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, worsening clinical outcome. We reviewed the current literature on the pathophysiology of cardiac injury and its association with acute ischaemic stroke. Several hypotheses on heart and brain axis pathology in the context of stroke related to COVID-19 were identified. Taken together, a combination of disease-related coagulopathy and systemic inflammation might cause endothelial damage and microvascular thrombosis, which in turn leads to structural myocardial damage. Cardiac complications of this damage such as tachyarrhythmia, myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy, together with changes in hemodynamics and the coagulation system, may play a causal role in the increased stroke risk observed in COVID-19 patients. These hypotheses are supported by a growing body of evidence, but further research is necessary to fully understand the underlying pathophysiology and allow for the design of cardioprotective and neuroprotective strategies in this at risk population.

A. V. Marchenko ◽  
A. S. Vronskiy ◽  
P. A. Myalyuk ◽  
R. N. Chebykin ◽  
V. N. Minasyan ◽  

Objective. To study the early and late outcomes of surgical treatment of patients with concomitant atherosclerotic lesions of coronary and brachiocephalic arteries while choosing a treatment strategy based on the developed diff erentiated approach algorithm.Material and Methods. The study comprised 243 patients with combined atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary and carotid arteries examined during the period from 01.07.2014 to 01.01.2021. Patients underwent revascularization surgeries based on the algorithm for choosing the volume and stages of surgical intervention, which was previously developed in the Federal Center for Cardiovascular Surgery named after S.G. Sukhanov. A single-stage combined surgery of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and carotid endarterectomy (CEE) was performed in 104 patients (42.8%); 139 patients (57.2%) received staged revascularization including 102 patients (73.4%) who received CABG as the fi rst step and 37 patients (26.6%) who received CEE as the fi rst step of surgery. The endpoints for both early and late results were death from all causes, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and combined endpoint that included all of the above. Average follow-up time was 41.1 ± 21.8 months.Results. No fatal outcomes were in any group during the early postoperative period. At the hospital stage, there were 5 cases (2.1%) of stroke, 1 case (0.4%) of TIA, and 3 cases (1.2%) of acute MI. Long-term results were evaluated in 225 patients (92.3%). The overall survival rate was 93.8%. There were 5 cases (2.4%) of MI, 11 cases (4.9%) of stroke, and 1 case (1.0%) of TIA. No signifi cant diff erences were observed in immediate and long-term endpoints between the groups of staged and combined interventions as compared to immediate (AMI: p = 0.680; TIA: p = 0.500; acute cerebrovascular events: p = 0.567; combined: p = 0.940) and long-term results (deaths: 0.860; AMI: p = 0.906; TIA: p = 0.528; acute cerebrovascular events: p = 0.378; combined: p = 0.669).Conclusion. Based on successful experience with treating the concomitant atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary and brachiocephalic arteries, the proposed algorithm allowed to perform safe procedures in both arterial basins and to achieve satisfactory results in in-hospital and long-term periods in the Federal Center for Cardiovascular Surgery named after S.G. Sukhanov (Perm).

Giorgia Cibin ◽  
Augusto D’Onofrio ◽  
Michele Antonello ◽  
Piero Battocchio ◽  
Gino Gerosa

A patient with a history of surgery for type A acute aortic dissection was readmitted for aortic arch and descending aortic dissection with rupture at the isthmus and periaortic hematoma. Due to the high surgical risk, the aortic team chose an endovascular approach, and the patient successfully underwent emergency total arch exclusion with an off-the-shelf, bimodular, single-branch device. The main module was deployed in the aortic arch and in the brachiocephalic trunk, and the second module was deployed in the ascending aorta. Despite the good perioperative outcome with no cerebrovascular events, the patient died 20 days later because of sudden iliac rupture.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013145
Premysl Velek ◽  
Marije J. Splinter ◽  
M. Kamran Ikram ◽  
M. Arfan Ikram ◽  
Maarten J.G. Leening ◽  

Background and objectivesAlthough there is evidence of disruption in acute cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care during the COVID-19 pandemic, its downstream effect in primary care is less clear. We investigated how the pandemic affected utilization of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care in general practices (GPs) and determined changes in GP-recorded diagnoses of selected cerebrovascular and cardiovascular outcomes.MethodsFrom electronic health records of 166,929 primary care patients aged 30 or over within the Rotterdam region, the Netherlands, we extracted the number of consultations related to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care, and first diagnoses of selected cerebrovascular and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders), conditions and events (angina, atrial fibrillation, TIA, myocardial infarction, stroke). We quantified changes in those outcomes during the first COVID-19 wave (March-May 2020) and thereafter (June-December 2020) by comparing them to the same period in 2016-2019. We also estimated the number of potentially missed diagnoses for each outcome.ResultsThe number of GP consultations related to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care declined by 38% (0.62, 95% CI: 0.56-0.68) during the first wave, as compared to expected counts based on pre-pandemic levels. Substantial declines in the number of new diagnoses were observed for cerebrovascular events: 37% for TIA (0.63, 0.41-0.96), and 29% for stroke (0.71, 0.59 to 0.84), while no significant changes were observed for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction (0.91, 0.74-1.14), angina (0.77, 0.48-1.25)). The counts across individual diagnoses recovered following June 2020, but the number of GP consultations related to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular care remained lower than expected also throughout the June-December period (0.93, 0.88-0.98).DiscussionWhile new diagnoses of acute cardiovascular events remained stable during the COVID19 pandemic, diagnoses of cerebrovascular events declined substantially compared to pre-pandemic levels, possibly due to incorrect perception of risk by patients. These findings emphasize the need to improve symptom recognition of cerebrovascular events among the general public and to encourage urgent presentation despite any physical distancing measures.

2021 ◽  
Yue Dai ◽  
Xuan Sha ◽  
Xiaoxi Song ◽  
Xiuli Zhang ◽  
Mengyuan Xing ◽  

Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and the key pathological basis is atherosclerosis (AS). Especially, the rupture of vulnerable plaques is the main cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Thus, the early identifying and therapy of vulnerable plaques are necessary. Results: In this study, we developed a novel multimodal imaging platform (GPRD) based on Gd doped Prussian blue (GPB) and rhodamine (Rd) to specifically target and identify the vulnerable plaques with the help of dextran sulfate (DS), one of the excellent ligands of scavenger receptor class A (SR-A). It is more important that the nano-enzyme capacity of GPRD NPs realized the elimination of the excessive production of ROS in cells, and the following reduction of ROS-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells, presenting an inhibition of plaque progress eventually. Conclusions: The ROS-scavenging multimodal imaging nanoprobe provided a new avenue for the diagnosis and treatment of AS vulnerable plaques.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shimeng Liu ◽  
Zongen Gao ◽  
Ran Meng ◽  
Haiqing Song ◽  
Tianping Tang ◽  

Background: Secondary stroke prevention after a high-risk, non-disabling ischemic cerebrovascular event needs to be enhanced. The study was conducted to investigate whether remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is effective in preventing recurrent ischemic events within 3 months.Methods: This was a four-center, single-arm, open-label Phase IIa futility trial (PICNIC-One Study). Adult patients (≥18 years of age) who had an acute minor ischemic stroke (AMIS) with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤ 3 or a transient ischemic attack (TIA) with moderate-to-high risk of stroke recurrence (ABCD score ≥ 4) within 14 days of symptom onset were recruited. Patients received RIC as adjunctive therapy to routine secondary stroke prevention regimen. RIC consisted of five cycles of 5-min inflation (200 mmHg) and 5-min deflation of cuffs (45 min) on bilateral upper limbs twice a day for 90 days.Results: A total of 285 patients met the study criteria, of which 167 provided signed informed consent and were enrolled. Data from 162 were analyzed with five subjects excluded. Recurrent AIS/TIA occurred in 6/162 (3.7%) patients within 3 months, with no occurrence of hemorrhagic stroke. The top three adverse events were upper limb pain (44/162, 27.2%), petechia (26/162, 16.0%), and heart palpitation (5/162, 3.1%). About 68 (42.0%) subjects completed ≥ 50% of 45-min RIC sessions.Conclusions: RIC is a safe add-on procedure and it has a potential benefit in reducing recurrent cerebrovascular events in patients with high-risk, non-disabling ischemic cerebrovascular events as the risk of stroke/TIA events is lower than expected; however, its compliance needs to be improved. Our study provides critical preliminary data to plan a large sample size, randomized controlled clinical study to systematically investigate the safety and efficacy of RIC in this population.

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