<span>The pulse ultra-wide band (UWB) radar consists of switching of energy of very short duration in an ultra-broadband emission chain, and the UWB signal emitted is an ultrashort pulse, of the order of nanoseconds, without a carrier. These systems can indicate the presence and distances of a distant object, call a target, and determine its size, shape, speed, and trajectory. In this paper, we present a UWB radar system allowing the detection of the presence of a target and its localization in a road environment based on the principle of correlation of the reflected signal with the reference and the determination of its correlation peak.</span>
The radar penetrating technique has aroused a keen interest in the research community, due to its superior abilities for through-the-wall indoor human motion monitoring. Micro-Doppler signatures in this situation play a significant role in recognition and classification for human activities. However, the live wire buried in the wall introduces additive clutters to the spectrograms. Such degraded spectrograms drastically affect the performance of behind-the-wall human activity detection. In this paper, an ultra-wideband (UWB) radar system is utilized in the through-the-wall scenario to get the feature enhanced micro-Doppler signature called range-max time-frequency representation (R-max TFR). Then, a recently introduced Cycle-Consistent Generative Adversarial Network (Cycle GAN) is employed to realize the end-to-end de-wiring task. Cycle GAN can learn the mapping between spectrograms with and without the live wire effect. To minimize the wiring clutters, a loss function called identity loss is introduced in this work. Finally, the proposed de-wiring approach is evaluated through classification. The results show that the proposed Cycle GAN architecture outperforms other state-of-art de-wiring methods.
Vital signs such as heart rate and respiration rate are among the most important physiological signals for health monitoring and medical applications. Impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) radar becomes one of the essential sensors in non-contact vital signs detection. The heart pulse wave is easily corrupted by noise and respiration activity since the heartbeat signal has less power compared with the breathing signal and its harmonics. In this paper, a signal processing technique for a UWB radar system was developed to detect the heart rate and respiration rate. There are four main stages of signal processing: (1) clutter removal to reduce the static random noise from the environment; (2) independent component analysis (ICA) to do dimension reduction and remove noise; (3) using low-pass and high-pass filters to eliminate the out of band noise; (4) modified covariance method for spectrum estimation. Furthermore, higher harmonics of heart rate were used to estimate heart rate and minimize respiration interference. The experiments in this article contain different scenarios including bed angle, body position, as well as interference from the visitor near the bed and away from the bed. The results were compared with the ECG sensor and respiration belt. The average mean absolute error (MAE) of heart rate results is 1.32 for the proposed algorithm.
Background: The gold standard for sleep monitoring, polysomnography (PSG), is too obtrusive and limited for practical use with tiny infants or in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) settings. The ability of impulse-radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) radar, a non-contact sensing technology, to assess vital signs and fine movement asymmetry in neonates was recently demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of quantitatively distinguishing and measuring sleep/wake states in neonates using IR-UWB radar and to compare its accuracy with behavioral observation-based sleep/wake analyses using video recordings.Methods: One preterm and three term neonates in the NICU were enrolled, and voluntary movements and vital signs were measured by radar at ages ranging from 2 to 27 days. Data from a video camcorder, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG), and actigraphy were simultaneously recorded for reference. Radar signals were processed using a sleep/wake decision algorithm integrated with breathing signals and movement features.Results: The average recording time for the analysis was 13.0 (7.0–20.5) h across neonates. Compared with video analyses, the sleep/wake decision algorithm for neonates correctly classified 72.2% of sleep epochs and 80.6% of wake epochs and achieved a final Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.49 (0.41–0.59) and an overall accuracy of 75.2%.Conclusions: IR-UWB radar can provide considerable accuracy regarding sleep/wake decisions in neonates, and although current performance is not yet sufficient, this study demonstrated the feasibility of its possible use in the NICU for the first time. This unobtrusive, non-contact radar technology is a promising method for monitoring sleep/wake states with vital signs in neonates.
Emotion recognition gained increasingly prominent attraction from a multitude of fields recently due to their wide use in human-computer interaction interface, therapy, and advanced robotics, etc. Human speech, gestures, facial expressions, and physiological signals can be used to recognize different emotions. Despite the discriminating properties to recognize emotions, the first three methods have been regarded as ineffective as the probability of human’s voluntary and involuntary concealing the real emotions can not be ignored. Physiological signals, on the other hand, are capable of providing more objective, and reliable emotion recognition. Based on physiological signals, several methods have been introduced for emotion recognition, yet, predominantly such approaches are invasive involving the placement of on-body sensors. The efficacy and accuracy of these approaches are hindered by the sensor malfunctioning and erroneous data due to human limbs movement. This study presents a non-invasive approach where machine learning complements the impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals for emotion recognition. First, the feasibility of using IR-UWB for emotion recognition is analyzed followed by determining the state of emotions into happiness, disgust, and fear. These emotions are triggered using carefully selected video clips to human subjects involving both males and females. The convincing evidence that different breathing patterns are linked with different emotions has been leveraged to discriminate between different emotions. Chest movement of thirty-five subjects is obtained using IR-UWB radar while watching the video clips in solitude. Extensive signal processing is applied to the obtained chest movement signals to estimate respiration rate per minute (RPM). The RPM estimated by the algorithm is validated by repeated measurements by a commercially available Pulse Oximeter. A dataset is maintained comprising gender, RPM, age, and associated emotions which are further used with several machine learning algorithms for automatic recognition of human emotions. Experiments reveal that IR-UWB possesses the potential to differentiate between different human emotions with a decent accuracy of 76% without placing any on-body sensors. Separate analysis for male and female participants reveals that males experience high arousal for happiness while females experience intense fear emotions. For disgust emotion, no large difference is found for male and female participants. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study presents the first non-invasive approach using the IR-UWB radar for emotion recognition.
AbstractRecently, noncontact vital sign monitors have attracted attention because of issues related to the transmission of contagious diseases. We developed a real-time vital sign monitor using impulse-radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) radar with embedded processors and software; we then evaluated its accuracy in measuring heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) and investigated the factors affecting the accuracy of the radar-based measurements. In 50 patients visiting a cardiology clinic, HR and RR were measured using IR-UWB radar simultaneously with electrocardiography and capnometry. All patients underwent HR and RR measurements in 2 postures—supine and sitting—for 2 min each. There was a high agreement between the RR measured using radar and capnometry (concordance correlation coefficient [CCC] 0.925 [0.919–0.926]; upper and lower limits of agreement [LOA], − 2.21 and 3.90 breaths/min). The HR measured using radar was also in close agreement with the value measured using electrocardiography (CCC 0.749 [0.738–0.760]; upper and lower LOA, − 12.78 and 15.04 beats/min). Linear mixed effect models showed that the sitting position and an HR < 70 bpm were associated with an increase in the absolute biases of the HR, whereas the sitting position and an RR < 18 breaths/min were associated with an increase in the absolute biases of the RR. The IR-UWB radar sensor with embedded processors and software can measure the RR and HR in real time with high precision. The sitting position and a low RR or HR were associated with the accuracy of RR and HR measurement, respectively, using IR-UWB radar.