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Dounia Daghouj ◽  
Marwa Abdellaoui ◽  
Mohammed Fattah ◽  
Said Mazer ◽  
Youness Balboul ◽  

<span>The pulse ultra-wide band (UWB) radar consists of switching of energy of very short duration in an ultra-broadband emission chain, and the UWB signal emitted is an ultrashort pulse, of the order of nanoseconds, without a carrier. These systems can indicate the presence and distances of a distant object, call a target, and determine its size, shape, speed, and trajectory. In this paper, we present a UWB radar system allowing the detection of the presence of a target and its localization in a road environment based on the principle of correlation of the reflected signal with the reference and the determination of its correlation peak.</span>

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 679
Johannes Rossouw van der van der Merwe ◽  
Fabio Garzia ◽  
Alexander Rügamer ◽  
Santiago Urquijo ◽  
David Contreras Franco ◽  

The performance of GNSS receivers is significantly affected by interference signals. For this reason, several research groups have proposed methods to mitigate the effect of different kinds of jammers. One effective method for wide-band IM is the HDDM PB. It provides good performance to pulsed and frequency sparse interference. However, it and many other methods have poor performance against wide-band noise signals, which are not frequency-sparse. This article proposes to include AGC in the HDDM structure to attenuate the signal instead of removing it: the HDDM-AGC. It overcomes the wide-band noise limitation for IM at the cost of limiting mitigation capability to other signals. Previous studies with this approach were limited to only measuring the CN0 performance of tracking, but this article extends the analysis to include the impact of the HDDM-AGC algorithm on the PVT solution. It allows an end-to-end evaluation and impact assessment of mitigation to a GNSS receiver. This study compares two commercial receivers: one high-end and one low-cost, with and without HDDM IM against laboratory-generated interference signals. The results show that the HDDM-AGC provides a PVT availability and precision comparable to high-end commercial receivers with integrated mitigation for most interference types. For pulse interferences, its performance is superior. Further, it is shown that degradation is minimized against wide-band noise interferences. Regarding low-cost receivers, the PVT availability can be increased up to 40% by applying an external HDDM-AGC.

2022 ◽  
Nikita Dmitriev ◽  
Sergey Koptyaev ◽  
Andrey Voloshin ◽  
Nikita Kondratiev ◽  
Valery Lobanov ◽  

Abstract Dual-comb interferometry is based on self-heterodyning two optical frequency combs, with corresponding mapping of the optical spectrum into the radio-frequency domain. The dual-comb enables diverse applications, including metrology, fast high-precision spectroscopy with high signal-to-noise ratio, distance ranging, and coherent optical communications. However, current dual-frequency-comb systems are designed for research applications and typically rely on scientific equipment and bulky mode-locked lasers. Here we demonstrate for the first time a fully integrated power-efficient dual-microcomb source that is electrically driven and allows turnkey operation. Our implementation uses commercially available components, including distributed-feedback and Fabry--Perot laser diodes, and silicon nitride photonic circuits with microresonators fabricated in commercial multi-project wafer runs. Our devices are therefore unique in terms of size, weight, power consumption, and cost. Laser-diode self-injection locking relaxes the requirements on microresonator spectral purity and Q-factor, so that we can generate soliton microcombs resilient to thermal frequency drift and with pump-to-comb sideband efficiency of up to 40% at mW power levels. We demonstrate down-conversion of the optical spectrum from 1400 nm to 1700 nm into the radio-frequency domain, which is valuable for fast wide-band Fourier spectroscopy, which was previously not available with chip-scale devices. Our findings pave the way for further integration of miniature microcomb-based sensors and devices for high-volume applications, thus opening up the prospect of innovative products that redefine the market of industrial and consumer mobile and wearable devices and sensors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
K. Nebiolo ◽  
T. Castro-Santos

Abstract Introduction Radio telemetry, one of the most widely used techniques for tracking wildlife and fisheries populations, has a false-positive problem. Bias from false-positive detections can affect many important derived metrics, such as home range estimation, site occupation, survival, and migration timing. False-positive removal processes have relied upon simple filters and personal opinion. To overcome these shortcomings, we have developed BIOTAS (BIOTelemetry Analysis Software) to assist with false-positive identification, removal, and data management for large-scale radio telemetry projects. Methods BIOTAS uses a naïve Bayes classifier to identify and remove false-positive detections from radio telemetry data. The semi-supervised classifier uses spurious detections from unknown tags and study tags as training data. We tested BIOTAS on four scenarios: wide-band receiver with a single Yagi antenna, wide-band receiver that switched between two Yagi antennas, wide-band receiver with a single dipole antenna, and single-band receiver that switched between five frequencies. BIOTAS has a built in a k-fold cross-validation and assesses model quality with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, false-positive rate, and precision-recall area under the curve. BIOTAS also assesses concordance with a traditional consecutive detection filter using Cohen’s $$\kappa$$ κ . Results Overall BIOTAS performed equally well in all scenarios and was able to discriminate between known false-positive detections and valid study tag detections with low false-positive rates (< 0.001) as determined through cross-validation, even as receivers switched between antennas and frequencies. BIOTAS classified between 94 and 99% of study tag detections as valid. Conclusion As part of a robust data management plan, BIOTAS is able to discriminate between detections from study tags and known false positives. BIOTAS works with multiple manufacturers and accounts for receivers that switch between antennas and frequencies. BIOTAS provides the framework for transparent, objective, and repeatable telemetry projects for wildlife conservation surveys, and increases the efficiency of data processing.

Lei Zheng ◽  
Lichuan Jin ◽  
Tianlong Wen ◽  
Yulong Liao ◽  
Xiaoli Tang ◽  

Abstract With the advent of the post-Moore era, researches on beyond-Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) approaches have been attracted more and more attention. Magnonics, or spin wave is one of the most promising technology beyond CMOS, which magnons-quanta for spin waves-process the information analogous to electronic charges in electronics. Information transmission by spin waves, which uses the frequency, amplitude and (or) phase to encode information, has a great many of advantages such as extremely low energy loss and wide-band frequency. Moreover, using the nonlinear characteristics of spin waves for information transmission can increase the extra degree of freedom of information. This review provides a tutorial overview over the effects of spin wave propagation and recent research progress in uniform spin wave waveguide. The propagation characteristics of spin waves in uniform waveguides and some special propagation phenomena such as spin wave beam splitting and self-focusing are described by combining experimental phenomena and theoretical formulas. Furthermore, we summarize methods for modulating propagation of spin wave in uniform waveguide, and comment on the advantages and limitations of these methods. The review may promote the development of information transmission technology based on spin waves.

2022 ◽  
Vol 163 (2) ◽  
pp. 59
R. Dodson ◽  
E. Momjian ◽  
D. J. Pisano ◽  
N. Luber ◽  
J. Blue Bird ◽  

Abstract Radio astronomy is undergoing a renaissance, as the next generation of instruments provides a massive leap forward in collecting area and therefore raw sensitivity. However, to achieve this theoretical level of sensitivity in the science data products, we need to address the much more pernicious systematic effects, which are the true limitation. These become all the more significant when we consider that much of the time used by survey instruments, such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be dedicated to deep surveys. CHILES is a deep H i survey of the COSMOS field, with 1000 hr of Very Large Array time. We present our approach for creating the image cubes from the first epoch, with discussions of the methods and quantification of the data quality from 946 to 1420 MHz—a redshift range of 0.5−0. We lay out the problems we had to solve and describe how we tackled them. These are important because CHILES is the first deep wide-band multiepoch H i survey and has relevance for ongoing and future surveys. We focus on the accumulated systematic errors in the imaging, as the goal is to deliver a high-fidelity image that is only limited by the random thermal errors. To understand and correct these systematic effects, we ideally manage them in the domain in which they arise, and that is predominately the visibility domain. CHILES is a perfect test bed for many of the issues we can expect for deep imaging with the SKA or ngVLA, and we discuss the lessons we have learned.

Nanophotonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Min Huang ◽  
Bin Zheng ◽  
Tong Cai ◽  
Xiaofeng Li ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  

Abstract Metasurfaces, interacted with artificial intelligence, have now been motivating many contemporary research studies to revisit established fields, e.g., direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. Conventional DOA estimation techniques typically necessitate bulky-sized beam-scanning equipment for signal acquisition or complicated reconstruction algorithms for data postprocessing, making them ineffective for in-situ detection. In this article, we propose a machine-learning-enabled metasurface for DOA estimation. For certain incident signals, a tunable metasurface is controlled in sequence, generating a series of field intensities at the single receiving probe. The perceived data are subsequently processed by a pretrained random forest model to access the incident angle. As an illustrative example, we experimentally demonstrate a high-accuracy intelligent DOA estimation approach for a wide range of incident angles and achieve more than 95% accuracy with an error of less than 0.5 ° $0.5{\degree}$ . The reported strategy opens a feasible route for intelligent DOA detection in full space and wide band. Moreover, it will provide breakthrough inspiration for traditional applications incorporating time-saving and equipment-simplified majorization.

Micro ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-53
Fabrizio Roccaforte ◽  
Filippo Giannazzo ◽  
Giuseppe Greco

Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) are excellent materials for the next generation of high-power and high-frequency electronic devices. In fact, their wide band gap (>3 eV) and high critical electric field (>2 MV/cm) enable superior performances to be obtained with respect to the traditional silicon devices. Hence, today, a variety of diodes and transistors based on SiC and GaN are already available in the market. For the fabrication of these electronic devices, selective doping is required to create either n-type or p-type regions with different functionalities and at different doping levels (typically in the range 1016–1020 cm−3). In this context, due to the low diffusion coefficient of the typical dopant species in SiC, and to the relatively low decomposition temperature of GaN (about 900 °C), ion implantation is the only practical way to achieve selective doping in these materials. In this paper, the main issues related to ion implantation doping technology for SiC and GaN electronic devices are briefly reviewed. In particular, some specific literature case studies are illustrated to describe the impact of the ion implantation doping conditions (annealing temperature, electrical activation and doping profiles, surface morphology, creation of interface states, etc.) on the electrical parameters of power devices. Similarities and differences in the application of ion implantation doping technology in the two materials are highlighted in this paper.

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