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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
H. V. R. Dias ◽  
A. J. Almeida ◽  
J. A. Maia-Júnior ◽  
R. R. Ribeiro ◽  
K. A. A. Torres-Cordido ◽  

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 100936
André M. Machado ◽  
Sergio Fernández-Boo ◽  
Manuel Nande ◽  
Rui Pinto ◽  
Benjamin Costas ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Meghan L. Donovan ◽  
Eileen K. Chun ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  
Zuoxin Wang

The socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) offers a unique opportunity to examine the impacts of adolescent social isolation on the brain, immune system, and behavior. In the current study, male and female prairie voles were randomly assigned to be housed alone or with a same-sex cagemate after weaning (i.e., on postnatal day 21–22) for a 6-week period. Thereafter, subjects were tested for anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST), respectively. Blood was collected to measure peripheral cytokine levels, and brain tissue was processed for microglial density in various brain regions, including the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc), Medial Amygdala (MeA), Central Amygdala (CeA), Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (BNST), and Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (PVN). Sex differences were found in EPM and FST behaviors, where male voles had significantly lower total arm entries in the EPM as well as lower latency to immobility in the FST compared to females. A sex by treatment effect was found in peripheral IL-1β levels, where isolated males had a lower level of IL-1β compared to cohoused females. Post-weaning social isolation also altered microglial density in a brain region-specific manner. Isolated voles had higher microglial density in the NAcc, MeA, and CeA, but lower microglial density in the dorsal BNST. Cohoused male voles also had higher microglial density in the PVN compared to cohoused females. Taken together, these data suggest that post-weaning social housing environments can alter peripheral and central immune systems in prairie voles, highlighting a potential role for the immune system in shaping isolation-induced alterations to the brain and behavior.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 175-194
Dedi Rahman Siolimbona ◽  
Mega Teguh Budiarto ◽  
A'yunin Sofro

Abstract The results of previous studies showed that the ratio of the differences in the level of quantitative reasoning abilities between male students and female students was quite significant. While the frame of reference refers to a series of mental actions through which individuals can regulate the processes and products of quantitative reasoning. Therefore, there are two main objectives of this study, namely to show whether or not there are differences in quantitative reasoning products using a frame of reference between male and female students, then to describe the process of quantitative reasoning using a frame of reference between male and female students. Using Sequential Mixed Methods, this study examined 58 students of class VIII junior high school. The research was conducted in two phases, namely the quantitative phase which included statistical data analysis using the Mann Withney Test to determine whether there were differences in the product of quantitative reasoning using the frame of reference for male and female students. Then the qualitative phase includes a description of the quantitative reasoning process using a frame of reference for male and female students. The results of the study stated that there were differences in the product of quantitative reasoning between male and female students. This is indicated by the results of statistical tests in the quantitative phase, while the qualitative phase found that male students were able to analyze the formulas that were determined according to the results of their own interpretation of the information provided implicitly or explicitly in the questions compared to female students. Keywords: Quantitative Reasoning, Frame of Reference, Gender   Abstrak Hasil penelitian sebelumnya menunjukan rasio perbedaan tingkat kemampuan penalaran kuantitatif antara siswa  laki-laki dan siswa  perempuan yang cukup signifikan. Sedang kerangka referensi merujuk pada serangkaian tindakan mental yang melaluinya individu dapat mengatur proses dan produk dari penalaran kuantitatif. Oleh karenanya, ada dua tujuan utama dari penelitian ini, yaitu menunjukkan ada atau tidak-nya perbedaan produk penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan, selanjutnya mendeskripsikan proses penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Menggunakan Sequential Mixed Methods penelitian ini mengkaji 58 orang siswa kelas VIII SMP. Penelitian dilakukan dengan dua fase, yaitu fase kuantitatif meliputi analisis data statistik menggunakan uji Mann Withney Test untuk mengetahui adakah perbedaan produk penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. selanjutnya fase kualitatif meliputi, deskripsi proses penalaran kuantitatif menggunakan kerangka referensi siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Hasil penelitian menyatakan ada perbedaan produk penalaran kuantitatif antara siswa laki-laki dan perempuan. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh hasil uji statistik pada fase kuantitatif, sedangkan fase kualitatif menemukan bahwa siswa laki-laki lebih dapat menganalisis rumus/formula yang ditentukan menurut hasil interpretasinya sendiri terhadap informasi yang diberikan secara implisit maupun eksplisit dalam soal disbanding siswa perempuan. Kata Kunci: Penalaran Kuantitatif, Kerangka Referensi, Gender.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-8
Mohan Belbase ◽  
Jyoti Adhikari

Introduction: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a common, chronic and disabling disorder marked by obsessions and/or compulsions. This study tries to find the demographic profiles, severity and response of antiobsessive drugs in young and adult patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Aims: To study the socio-demographic profile, severity and treatment response to commonly used antiobsessive medications in male and female, and young and adults. Methods: This is a hospital based experimental study done in patients attending to psychiatry out-patient department over one year from February 2020 to January 2021.  Diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder was made based on International Classification of Disease- 10 criteria for research. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale check list (adult and children) was applied in those patients and recorded accordingly on baseline (week 0) and patients were treated with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants in therapeutic doses for 6 weeks. On follow up at week 6, they were again reassessed and the scores were recorded and analyzed. Results: Among the total study subject (N-52), 26(50 %) were male and 26(50 %) were females. Patients in age bracket 20-29 is the most common age group representing 18(34.6 %). Mean age of patients is 30.36±11.93 years (28.65±9.80 in male and 32.04±13.73 in female). Severe form of obsessive compulsive disorder was the most common type that represent 33(63.5%) followed by moderate 16(30.8%) and extreme 3(5.7%). There is a difference of treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female with statistical significance (p= 0.039). Conclusion: This study shows that obsessive compulsive disorder is most commonly found in 20-29 age group and the severe type is the most common. There is a significant difference in treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female.

أنس عدنان عضيبات ◽  
مشاعل محمد الرياحنة

The study aimed to identify the trends of primary stage laborers towards e-learning in teaching the Arabic language, and the obstacles they face from their point of view. The study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach, and the study population consisted of (170) male and female teachers working in public schools in Jerash governorate. The study sample (75) male and female teachers, who were chosen randomly. The results of the study showed that the attitudes of primary school teachers towards e-learning came at a positive level, with an arithmetic average (3.61), and the obstacles facing primary school teachers in e-learning came with a high degree, with an arithmetic average (3.84). The study recommended giving attention to providing electronic learning tools to include all schools, connecting all schools to the Internet and providing computers in proportion to the number of students in schools, and the study also recommended the necessity of dissolving all obstacles in e-learning, in terms of providing Internet labs in schools in proportion to the number of students and courses Scholastic.

Genus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (1) ◽  
Helena Cruz Castanheira ◽  
José Henrique Costa Monteiro da Silva

AbstractThe production, compilation, and publication of death registration records is complex and usually involves many institutions. Assessing available data and the evolution of the completeness of the data compiled based on demographic techniques and other available data sources is of great importance for countries and for having timely and disaggregated mortality estimates. In this paper, we assess whether it is reasonable, based on the available data, to assume that there is a sex difference in the completeness of male and female death records in Peru in the last 30 years. In addition, we assess how the gap may have evolved with time by applying two-census death distribution methods on health-related registries and analyzing the information from the Demographic and Health Surveys and civil registries. Our findings suggest that there is no significant sex difference in the completeness of male and female health-related registries and, consequently, the sex gap currently observed in adult mortality estimates might be overestimated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 281-284
Farah Ahsan ◽  
Manas Talukdar ◽  
Naeem Qureshi ◽  
Sumera Samreen ◽  
Sonali Kukreti

We aimed to provide Correlation of Hs Troponin I & Uric Acid in patients of Myocardial Infarction.: 100 patients who came to cardiac emergency in Shri Mahant Indresh Hospital. Serum samples taken for Hs Troponin I and Uric Acid for patients of Myocardial Infarction and run on VITROS 5600/7600 which is based on dry chemistry. : With 100 patients of more than 40 years of age 61 were males & 39 were females. For both males & females age mean & SD was 59.8±10.77.In our study we took 100 random patients coming to cardiac emergency out of which 50 patients had raised trop I and 45 patients had raised uric acid levels. Out of those 50 patients with raised HS Trop I 25 patients had raised values for uric acid. For Hs Trop I males – 21.88±48.8 & females 1676±57.58. For uric acid for males-6.545±3.75 & for females- 6.315±1.86.Therefore Hs Trop I & uric acid were both significant when compared with age T value was 2.7001 and P value was 0.0075. Whereas when compared with sex that is male and female to both Hs Trop I and uric acid then Hs Trop I was more significant with P value 0.0001.Uric acid is an economical marker that is readily, quickly and reliably obtainable & can be one of the predictable prognostic indicator in acute Myocardial Infarction.

Aamer Aldbyani

The current research aims to identify the level of fear of Covid-19 and loneliness among Yemeni students in China, and to determine the relationship between them and whether there are differences in the responses of the research sample according to gender. The research adopted the descriptive approach, and the questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data from the research sample. The research community consisted of Yemeni students in China who were enrolled in the 2021 academic year, the sample is (301) male and female students who were selected using a simple random sampling method. The results showed that the level of fear of Covid-19 and the degree of loneliness were high. There is a positive relationship between fear of COVID-19 and loneliness. There are differences in fear of Covid-19 according to the gender variable in favor of males, and differences in loneliness in favor of females.

Anthony Ford ◽  
Daniel Kepple ◽  
Jonathan Williams ◽  
Gabrielle Kolesar ◽  
Colby T. Ford ◽  

The unique biological features of Plasmodium vivax not only make it difficult to control but also to eliminate. For the transmission of the malaria parasite from infected human to the vector, gametocytes play a major role. The transmission potential of a malarial infection is inferred based on microscopic detection of gametocytes and molecular screening of genes in the female gametocytes. Microscopy-based detection methods could grossly underestimate the reservoirs of infection as gametocytes may occur as submicroscopic or as micro- or macro-gametocytes. The identification of genes that are highly expressed and polymorphic in male and female gametocytes is critical for monitoring changes not only in their relative proportions but also the composition of gametocyte clones contributing to transmission over time. Recent transcriptomic study revealed two distinct clusters of highly correlated genes expressed in the P. vivax gametocytes, indicating that the male and female terminal gametocytogeneses are independently regulated. However, the detective power of these genes is unclear. In this study, we compared genetic variations of 15 and 11 genes expressed, respectively, in the female and male gametocytes among P. vivax isolates from Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Further, we constructed phylogenetic trees to determine the resolution power and clustering patterns of gametocyte clones. As expected, Pvs25 (PVP01_0616100) and Pvs16 (PVP01_0305600) expressed in the female gametocytes were highly conserved in all geographical isolates. In contrast, genes including 6-cysteine protein Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and upregulated in late gametocytes ULG8 (PVP01_1452800) expressed in the female gametocytes, as well as two CPW-WPC family proteins (PVP01_1215900 and PVP01_1320100) expressed in the male gametocytes indicated considerably high nucleotide and haplotype diversity among isolates. Parasite samples expressed in male and female gametocyte genes were observed in separate phylogenetic clusters and likely represented distinct gametocyte clones. Compared to Pvs25, Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and a CPW-WPC family protein (PVP01_0904300) showed higher expression in a subset of Ethiopian P. vivax samples. Thus, Pvs230, ULG8, and CPW-WPC family proteins including PVP01_0904300, PVP01_1215900, and PVP01_1320100 could potentially be used as novel biomarkers for detecting both sexes of P. vivax gametocytes in low-density infections and estimating transmission reservoirs.

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