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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 19-36
Mishal H. Al Shammari

One positive side of the Covid-19 pandemic is the unprecedented opportunity it has offered to the Higher Education Institutions to experience digital learning like never before. During the pandemic, Distant Learning platforms, including Learning Management Systems and Video Conferencing Platforms, have been ubiquitous, and no single institution survived without them during the pandemic. Hence, one of the critical lessons that should be learned is the students’ experiences with these platforms. This study aims to investigate the digital platform preferences of English major students in the College of Language and Translation at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia during the Emergency Remote Education due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Its significance lies in the fact that it underscores and addresses students’ needs and preferences with regard to the digital platforms to be used for language learning, a pragmatic examination of which has been carried out in the following pages. It focuses on reasons for the preferences of the two leading digital platforms used in King Saud University: Blackboard and Zoom. A Survey with open-ended and closed-ended questions was designed to answer the questions of the study: which digital platforms do students prefer to use during Emergency Remote Education, and what were the reasons behind students’ preferences? A total of 300 students from both male and female campuses at different levels of study participated in the study. The results showed that students preferred the Zoom to Blackboard. Reasons of preferences were mainly the ease of use, followed by supporting smartphones, then having an app for smartphones. The thematic analysis of the open-ended question showed that technical problems and connection latency were the main reasons behind students’ preferences of the Zoom. The findings also indicated gender differences in reasons of preferences.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Josette J Wlaschin ◽  
Sangeetha Hareendran ◽  
Claire E Le Pichon

The immune mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity to pain after nerve injury are different in male and female mice.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260646
Saili Moghe ◽  
Katelyn Baumgart ◽  
Julie J. Shaffer ◽  
Kimberly A. Carlson

The positive influence of undergraduate research and mentoring on student success in STEM fields has been well-established. However, the role that the gender of a research mentor may play in the undergraduate research experience warrants further investigation. This is an especially critical issue to address, since the lack of female role models in STEM fields is acknowledged as an impediment to the success and progress of women pursuing STEM-careers. To evaluate how the gender of undergraduate research mentors influences the research experience of students, we collected and analyzed surveys from undergraduates and alumni who had completed undergraduate research at the University of Nebraska at Kearney. We found that even though students did not select mentors based on gender, there were differences in how students perceived their mentors, depending on the gender of their mentors. Interestingly, students with female mentors were more likely than students with male mentors to report that their research experience had prepared them for a career in science. Further, our gender-pairing analyses revealed that students who expressed that the gender of their mentor had contributed to their relationship with their mentor were more likely to have a female mentor. Our data indicate that female mentors favorably influence the undergraduate research experience of both male and female students. Finally, our study reinforces the conclusions of previous studies demonstrating that undergraduate research and mentoring are beneficial for students. Overall, our findings support that, for students to fully benefit from their undergraduate research experience, undergraduate research opportunities for students should include an equitable representation of female mentors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 335-351
Homa Freeman ◽  
Lisa Barnes ◽  
Warrick Long

Change seems to be a constant feature of the 21st century workplace. Successful organisations embrace change and make sure the personnel are valued, and that they remain engaged and motivated. Employers do not require to formally be in charge of a group of people to be called leader, but demonstrating leadership is an important feature for employees at every level of an organization. Women face a diverse range of difficulties in today’s workplace, and therefore this study aims to focus on the phenomenon of leading change without formal authority and develop a model for women to bring about change within their working climate. This conceptual research aims to identify novel connections between the concepts of leadership and feminism and in consideration of the features of the 21st century workplace. Reviewing the relevant literature particularly around the leadership qualities (drive, motivation, honesty, self-confidence, cognitive ability, and knowledge of the business) this study proposes dedication, political skill and sincerity as qualities of leadership without formal authority. Since, male and female personalities appear to be different in a number of aspects, the basic five personality qualities (known as the Big Five) are reviewed: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Reviewing models of change as well as females’ qualities, this study suggests a model for leading change without formal authority including Identifying gaps, Connecting with emotions, and Committing to change (ICC model).

A. Shapkin ◽  
R. Ivanova ◽  
N. Arsentseva ◽  
N. Sukhanova

Objective: mathematical demography means to identify and evaluate the age distribution of male and female of Taimyr tundra reindeer in the first decade of the XXI century and future trends in demographic situation Taimyr population.Materials and methods. The base material for evaluating the current state of the population age structure Taimyr steel fishing representative sample of male and female wild deer (n = 10845 individuals) collected in the West, Central and Taimyr Putorana in 2001-2008., And the deer samples (n = 1569 individuals), the floor of which is unknown. Determination of individual animals from age and older (n = 9773 individuals) performed on histological sections of cutters according to the corresponding procedure. To repay the random deviations of sample data because of a lack of presence of immature animals (calves, yearlings, young 1-2 years) (selectivity of fishing is directed primarily at the production of individuals older than 3 years, why animals in different age groups in the samples is greater than there are in the population) applies a smoothing procedure. Then, positive deviation of the number of individuals in the same age group were leveled due to negative deviations in adjacent groups.Results. By smoothed age ranges of the field samples from 2001-2008 the current age distribution of Taimyr wild reindeer calculated and analyzed. The study showed that the theoretical current age distribution of males with realized breeding is 77.03, females - 80.56, in the combined groups of animals - 82.35%. The real population has 18-19 age generations of males and females. The reproductive core of males from 3 to 10 years old is 48.43%, individuals of age limit 11 years and older occupy 1.96% of this sex and age structure, calves and young animals for 1-2 years - 24.64%. For the reproductive part of females aged 3–15 years, the overall age distribution is 55.34%, and the proportion of juveniles and young animals, according to calculations, is determined in this part of the population at 25.16%. In the combined current age distribution, males, females: calves and young animals accounted for 27.72%, the sexually mature part with animals of older and age-specific ages - 54.63%.Conclusion. Demographic Taimir population modeling operation in the first decade of the XXI century long materials commercial samples collected at commercial points shown at current age distribution of the realized and reproduction conditions for existing commercial load males - 77.03 for females - 80.56 and for unified groups (males, females) - 82.4%. Meanwhile, the steady state and stable age distribution Taimyr tundra wild deer can reach a middle-level only when the fecundity of female reproductive generations with clean reproduction rate (R0) equal in population groupings 1.0

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Vinh H. Vu ◽  
Sharon M. Donovan ◽  
Lauren R. Brink ◽  
Qian Li ◽  
Gabriele Gross ◽  

Objectives: The pig is a common model utilized to support substantiation of novel bioactive components in infant formula. However, reference ranges for outcomes to determine safety are unclear. Our objective was to use historical data to objectively define typical body and organ growth metrics of the domesticated pig in research.Methods: Twenty-two studies were compiled to assess typical growth of body and organ weights in young pigs. Metadata were organized to include milk replacer sources, bioactive components, sex, breed, source of herd, feeding regimen, and rearing environment. A combination of statistical models including simple linear regression and linear mixed effect models were used to assess typical growth patterns.Results: Over 18,000 data points from 786 animals were available. In general, minimal differences in the growth of pigs who were male and female, artificially- or sow-reared, or fed ad libitum- or by scheduled-feeding, were observed in the first 30 days of life (P > 0.05). A weight-for-age chart from reference pigs was developed to compare body weights of pigs demonstrating growth characterized as accelerated, typical, reduced, and failure to thrive to illustrate effects of dietary interventions. Distributions of relative brain, liver, and intestine weights (as % of total body weight) were similar between rearing environments and sexes. An alternative bivariate level approach was utilized for the analysis of organ weights. This approach revealed significant biologically-relevant insights into how deficient diets can affect organ weight that a univariate level assessment of weight distribution was unable to detect.Conclusions: Ultimately, these data can be used to better interpret whether bioactive ingredients tested in the pig model affect growth and development within typical reference values for pigs in the first 30 days of life.

Stroke ◽  
2021 ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  
Verena Börger ◽  
Ayan Mohamud Yusuf ◽  
Tobias Tertel ◽  
Oumaima Stambouli ◽  

Background and Purpose: Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) obtained from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were shown to induce ischemic neuroprotection in mice by modulating the brain infiltration of leukocytes and, specifically polymorphonuclear neutrophils. So far, effects of MSC-sEVs were only studied in young ischemic rodents. We herein examined the effects of MSC-sEVs in aged mice. Methods: Male and female C57Bl6/j mice (8–10 weeks or 15–24 months) were exposed to transient intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Vehicle or sEVs (equivalent of 2×10 6 MSCs) were intravenously administered. Neurological deficits, ischemic injury, blood-brain barrier integrity, brain leukocyte infiltration, and blood leukocyte responses were evaluated over up to 7 days. Results: MSC-sEV delivery reduced neurological deficits, infarct volume, brain edema, and neuronal injury in young and aged mice of both sexes, when delivered immediately postreperfusion or with 6 hours delay. MSC-sEVs decreased leukocyte and specifically polymorphonuclear neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage infiltrates in ischemic brains of aged mice. In peripheral blood, the number of monocytes and activated T cells was significantly reduced by MSC-sEVs. Conclusions: MSC-sEVs induce postischemic neuroprotection and anti-inflammation in aged mice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 435-454
Oriana Bandiera ◽  
Greg Fischer ◽  
Andrea Prat ◽  
Erina Ytsma

Existing empirical work raises the hypothesis that performance pay—whatever its output gains—may widen the gender earnings gap because women may respond less to incentives. We evaluate this possibility by aggregating evidence from existing experiments on performance incentives with male and female subjects. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model, we estimate both the average effect and heterogeneity across studies. We find that the gender response difference is close to zero and heterogeneity across studies is small, while performance pay increases output by 0.36 standard deviations on average. The data thus support agency theory for men and women alike. (JEL C11, C90, J16, J31, J33)

Poonam Meena ◽  
Satish Meena ◽  
Ashok Meena ◽  
R N Sehra

Background: Malnutrition among children below five years continues to be one of India major human development challenges. In spite of tremendous economic progress made in the last two to three decades. Methods: The study was cross-sectional hospital based study. Under five year children with sample size of 500 was taken for study. Results: All three parameters of malnutrition i.e. wasting, underweight and stunting were more common in males than females. It was found thatthere was very significant and highly significant difference with regard to underweight and stunting respectively between male and female children but no significant gender difference was found for wasting Conclusions: Majority of under five children were malnourished and malnutrition common in males than females. Keywords: Malnutrition, Wasting, Stunting, Underweight, Children

Nicholas Pereira ◽  
Theresa Burgess ◽  
Lieselotte Corton

Background: Field hockey is an Olympic sport played internationally and in which South Africa is a participating nation. It also has its own world cup. Few injury studies have been published on South African field hockey. Research efforts should increase within the sport to ensure safe participation and mitigate the inherent injury risks. Objectives: The objective of the study was to attend the male and female inter-provincial field hockey tournaments in South Africa and determine the incidence of injury and burden of acquired sport injuries (time-loss and medical attention). Methods: A quantitative, descriptive, longitudinal study, including 133 females and 139 males, was conducted. Participants completed baseline questionnaires prior to the tournament and post-match questionnaires detailing injuries during the tournament. Results: The recorded injuries were 77.9 (females) and 99.5 (males) per 1 000 player match hours. Medical attention was 51.9 (females) and 70.3 (males) injuries per 1 000 player match hours. The result for time-loss injuries was 4.3 (females) and 7.5 (males) injuries per 1 000 player match hours. Discussion: The study found high incidence rates of all injuries and medical attention injuries; however, the incidence of time-loss injuries was low in comparison to existing literature. Comparing current results to existing literature is challenging due to the heterogeneity of methodologies and injury definitions in field hockey research. Conclusion: This was the largest observational study in field hockey conducted in South Africa. The international sporting body should establish a consensus for future research and the South African Hockey Association explore long-term surveillance in South Africa to mimic similar national codes.

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