cardiac action
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2022 ◽  
Vol 164 ◽  
pp. 29-41
Nan Wang ◽  
Eef Dries ◽  
Ewan D. Fowler ◽  
Stephen C. Harmer ◽  
Jules C. Hancox ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Dena Esfandyari ◽  
Bio Maria Ghéo Idrissou ◽  
Konstantin Hennis ◽  
Petros Avramopoulos ◽  
Anne Dueck ◽  

AbstractAbnormalities of ventricular action potential cause malignant cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Here, we aim to identify microRNAs that regulate the human cardiac action potential and ask whether their manipulation allows for therapeutic modulation of action potential abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of the microRNA targetomes in human cardiac myocytes identifies miR-365 as a primary microRNA to regulate repolarizing ion channels. Action potential recordings in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes show that elevation of miR-365 significantly prolongs action potential duration in myocytes derived from a Short-QT syndrome patient, whereas specific inhibition of miR-365 normalizes pathologically prolonged action potential in Long-QT syndrome myocytes. Transcriptome analyses in these cells at bulk and single-cell level corroborate the key cardiac repolarizing channels as direct targets of miR-365, together with functionally synergistic regulation of additional action potential-regulating genes by this microRNA. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments confirm miR-365-dependent regulation of repolarizing ionic current Iks. Finally, refractory period measurements in human myocardial slices substantiate the regulatory effect of miR-365 on action potential in adult human myocardial tissue. Our results delineate miR-365 to regulate human cardiac action potential duration by targeting key factors of cardiac repolarization.

2021 ◽  
José Guilherme Chaui-Berlinck ◽  
Vitor Rodrigues da Silva

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shahrokh Shahi ◽  
Christopher D. Marcotte ◽  
Conner J. Herndon ◽  
Flavio H. Fenton ◽  
Yohannes Shiferaw ◽  

The electrical signals triggering the heart's contraction are governed by non-linear processes that can produce complex irregular activity, especially during or preceding the onset of cardiac arrhythmias. Forecasts of cardiac voltage time series in such conditions could allow new opportunities for intervention and control but would require efficient computation of highly accurate predictions. Although machine-learning (ML) approaches hold promise for delivering such results, non-linear time-series forecasting poses significant challenges. In this manuscript, we study the performance of two recurrent neural network (RNN) approaches along with echo state networks (ESNs) from the reservoir computing (RC) paradigm in predicting cardiac voltage data in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. We show that these ML time-series prediction methods can forecast synthetic and experimental cardiac action potentials for at least 15–20 beats with a high degree of accuracy, with ESNs typically two orders of magnitude faster than RNN approaches for the same network size.

2021 ◽  
Marina Kasimova ◽  

The IKS current is diffused through the plasma membranes of cardiomyocytes during the last phase of the cardiac action potential. This repolarization current is conducted by a tetrameric protein complex derived from the co-expression of four voltage-gated potassium channel KV7.1 α-subunits and KCNE1 ancillary subunits from KCNQ1 and KCNE1 genes, respectively. We studied here the conformational space of KV7.1 in presence and absence of KCNE1, by building transmembrane models of their known Resting, Intermediate, and Activated states. We conducted Molecular Dynamics simulations of these models in lipid bilayers including the phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) lipids. The comparative analysis of MD trajectories obtained for the KV7.1 and IKS models reveals how KCNE1 shifts the coupling mechanism between the activation state of the Voltage Sensor Domain of the channel and the conformation (open or closed) of its Pore Domain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (16) ◽  
pp. 8744
Asfree Gwanyanya ◽  
Inga Andriulė ◽  
Bogdan M. Istrate ◽  
Farjana Easmin ◽  
Kanigula Mubagwa ◽  

The cardiac Mg2+-sensitive, TRPM6, and TRPM7-like channels remain undefined, especially with the uncertainty regarding TRPM6 expression in cardiomyocytes. Additionally, their contribution to the cardiac action potential (AP) profile is unclear. Immunofluorescence assays showed the expression of the TRPM6 and TRPM7 proteins in isolated pig atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, of which the expression was modulated by incubation in extracellular divalent cation-free conditions. In patch clamp studies of cells dialyzed with solutions containing zero intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) to activate the Mg2+-sensitive channels, raising extracellular [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]o) from the 0.9-mM baseline to 7.2 mM prolonged the AP duration (APD). In contrast, no such effect was observed in cells dialyzed with physiological [Mg2+]i. Under voltage clamp, in cells dialyzed with zero [Mg2+]i, depolarizing ramps induced an outward-rectifying current, which was suppressed by raising [Mg2+]o and was absent in cells dialyzed with physiological [Mg2+]i. In cells dialyzed with physiological [Mg2+]i, raising [Mg2+]o decreased the L-type Ca2+ current and the total delayed-rectifier current but had no effect on the APD. These results suggest a co-expression of the TRPM6 and TRPM7 proteins in cardiomyocytes, which are therefore the molecular candidates for the native cardiac Mg2+-sensitive channels, and also suggest that the cardiac Mg2+-sensitive current shortens the APD, with potential implications in arrhythmogenesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
Andressa Sampaio Pereira ◽  
Patrícia de Morais Ferreira Brandão ◽  
Jerónimo A Auzmend ◽  
Alberto Lazarowski

Epilepsy is one of the neurological diseases of complex etiology that affects around 50 million people worldwide and is characterized by abnormal electrical activity and recurrent seizures. Uncontrolled generalized repetitive tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) are the main causes of unexpected sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Hypoxic stress induced by seizure results in neurocardiogenic dysfunctions, including iron overload and cardiomyopathy (IOC) which is related to severe lipid peroxidation caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS induces recurrent seizure activity, favoring the overexpression of P glycoprotein (P-gp) in the heart. P-gp plays a depolarizing role in cardiomyocyte membranes and potassium (Kir) channels control cellular excitability regarding the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. All these events result in a possible appearance of severe bradycardia and fatal arrhythmia. Several studies have sought evidence for different possible biomarkers for potential prediction of the risk of SUDEP avoiding its fatal outcome.

JCI Insight ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (11) ◽  
Amit Gruber ◽  
Oded Edri ◽  
Irit Huber ◽  
Gil Arbel ◽  
Amira Gepstein ◽  

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