action potential
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2022 ◽  
Vol 164 ◽  
pp. 29-41
Nan Wang ◽  
Eef Dries ◽  
Ewan D. Fowler ◽  
Stephen C. Harmer ◽  
Jules C. Hancox ◽  

Ayad Asaad Lbrahim ◽  
Mohammed Ehsan Safi ◽  
Eyad Ibrahim Abbas

Error is one element of the autoregressive (AR) model, which is supposed to be white noise. Correspondingly assumption that white noise error is a normal distribution in electromyography (EMG) estimation is one of the common causes for error maximization. This paper presents the effect of a suitable choice of filtering function based on the non-invasive analysis properties of motor unit action potential signal, extracted from a non-invasive method-the high spatial resolution (HSR) electromyography (EMG), recorded during low-level isometric muscle contractions. The final prediction error procedure is used to find the number of parameters in the model. The error signal parameter, the simulated deviation from the actual signals, is suitably filtered to obtain optimally appropriate estimates of the parameters of the automatic regression model. It is filtered to acquire optimally appropriate estimates of the parameters of the automatic regression model. Then appropriate estimates of spectral power shapes are obtained with a high degree of efficiency compared with the robust method under investigation. Extensive experiment results for the proposed technique have shown that it provides a robust and reliable calculation of model parameters. Moreover, estimates of power spectral profiles were evaluated efficiently.

Jannis Körner ◽  
Angelika Lampert

AbstractSensory neurons are responsible for the generation and transmission of nociceptive signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. They encompass a broadly heterogeneous population of highly specialized neurons. The understanding of the molecular choreography of individual subpopulations is essential to understand physiological and pathological pain states. Recently, it became evident that species differences limit transferability of research findings between human and rodents in pain research. Thus, it is necessary to systematically compare and categorize the electrophysiological data gained from human and rodent dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs). In this systematic review, we condense the available electrophysiological data defining subidentities in human and rat DRGs. A systematic search on PUBMED yielded 30 studies on rat and 3 studies on human sensory neurons. Defined outcome parameters included current clamp, voltage clamp, cell morphology, pharmacological readouts, and immune reactivity parameters. We compare evidence gathered for outcome markers to define subgroups, offer electrophysiological parameters for the definition of neuronal subtypes, and give a framework for the transferability of electrophysiological findings between species. A semiquantitative analysis revealed that for rat DRGs, there is an overarching consensus between studies that C-fiber linked sensory neurons display a lower action potential threshold, higher input resistance, a larger action potential overshoot, and a longer afterhyperpolarization duration compared to other sensory neurons. They are also more likely to display an infliction point in the falling phase of the action potential. This systematic review points out the need of more electrophysiological studies on human sensory neurons.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Henry Sutanto

The excitation, contraction, and relaxation of an atrial cardiomyocyte are maintained by the activation and inactivation of numerous cardiac ion channels. Their collaborative efforts cause time-dependent changes of membrane potential, generating an action potential (AP), which is a surrogate marker of atrial arrhythmias. Recently, computational models of atrial electrophysiology emerged as a modality to investigate arrhythmia mechanisms and to predict the outcome of antiarrhythmic therapies. However, the individual contribution of atrial ion channels on atrial action potential and reentrant arrhythmia is not yet fully understood. Thus, in this multiscale in-silico study, perturbations of individual atrial ionic currents (INa, Ito, ICaL, IKur, IKr, IKs, IK1, INCX and INaK) in two in-silico models of human atrial cardiomyocyte (i.e., Courtemanche-1998 and Grandi-2011) were performed at both cellular and tissue levels. The results show that the inhibition of ICaL and INCX resulted in AP shortening, while the inhibition of IKur, IKr, IKs, IK1 and INaK prolonged AP duration (APD). Particularly, in-silico perturbations (inhibition and upregulation) of IKr and IKs only minorly affected atrial repolarization in the Grandi model. In contrast, in the Courtemanche model, the inhibition of IKr and IKs significantly prolonged APD and vice versa. Additionally, a 50% reduction of Ito density abbreviated APD in the Courtemanche model, while the same perturbation prolonged APD in the Grandi model. Similarly, a strong model dependence was also observed at tissue scale, with an observable IK1-mediated reentry stabilizing effect in the Courtemanche model but not in the Grandi atrial model. Moreover, the Grandi model was highly sensitive to a change on intracellular Ca2+ concentration, promoting a repolarization failure in ICaL upregulation above 150% and facilitating reentrant spiral waves stabilization by ICaL inhibition. Finally, by incorporating the previously published atrial fibrillation (AF)-associated ionic remodeling in the Courtemanche atrial model, in-silico modeling revealed the antiarrhythmic effect of IKr inhibition in both acute and chronic settings. Overall, our multiscale computational study highlights the strong model-dependent effects of ionic perturbations which could affect the model’s accuracy, interpretability, and prediction. This observation also suggests the need for a careful selection of in-silico models of atrial electrophysiology to achieve specific research aims.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Dena Esfandyari ◽  
Bio Maria Ghéo Idrissou ◽  
Konstantin Hennis ◽  
Petros Avramopoulos ◽  
Anne Dueck ◽  

AbstractAbnormalities of ventricular action potential cause malignant cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Here, we aim to identify microRNAs that regulate the human cardiac action potential and ask whether their manipulation allows for therapeutic modulation of action potential abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of the microRNA targetomes in human cardiac myocytes identifies miR-365 as a primary microRNA to regulate repolarizing ion channels. Action potential recordings in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes show that elevation of miR-365 significantly prolongs action potential duration in myocytes derived from a Short-QT syndrome patient, whereas specific inhibition of miR-365 normalizes pathologically prolonged action potential in Long-QT syndrome myocytes. Transcriptome analyses in these cells at bulk and single-cell level corroborate the key cardiac repolarizing channels as direct targets of miR-365, together with functionally synergistic regulation of additional action potential-regulating genes by this microRNA. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments confirm miR-365-dependent regulation of repolarizing ionic current Iks. Finally, refractory period measurements in human myocardial slices substantiate the regulatory effect of miR-365 on action potential in adult human myocardial tissue. Our results delineate miR-365 to regulate human cardiac action potential duration by targeting key factors of cardiac repolarization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Andrew Adamatzky ◽  
Antoni Gandia

AbstractElectrical activity of fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is characterised by slow (h) irregular waves of baseline potential drift and fast (min) action potential likes spikes of the electrical potential. An exposure of the myceliated substrate to a chloroform vapour lead to several fold decrease of the baseline potential waves and increase of their duration. The chloroform vapour also causes either complete cessation of spiking activity or substantial reduction of the spiking frequency. Removal of the chloroform vapour from the growth containers leads to a gradual restoration of the mycelium electrical activity.

2022 ◽  
ariel halevi ◽  
Nairouz Farah ◽  
Nisan Ozana ◽  
Assaf Shoval ◽  

Hand ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 155894472110663
Nicholas F. Aloi ◽  
Landon M. Cluts ◽  
John R. Fowler

Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment neuropathy and is commonly evaluated using electrodiagnostic studies (EDSs). Ultrasound (US) has emerged as a potentially easier and more comfortable alternative to EDSs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether measurements of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve via US correlate with the severity rating of CTS based on EDSs. Methods: A retrospective review of patients aged 18 years or older who underwent US and EDSs of the median nerve for CTS was performed. Sensory nerve action potential, distal motor latency, and compound muscle action potential were measured, and severity was graded on American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine guidelines. Cross-sectional area of the median nerve was measured via US at the wrist crease. Results: There was a significant association between increasing CSA and increasing EDS severity ( P < .0001). The mean CSA for normal, mild, moderate, and severe CTS was 7.48 ± 2.00, 10.36 ± 2.53, 12.01 ± 3.64, and 14.34 ± 4.77 mm2, respectively. The area under the curve demonstrated the ability of median nerve CSA to discriminate between normal and abnormal EDSs with an optimal cutoff CSA of ≥10 mm2, as well as, the ability to discriminate between mild CTS and moderate to severe CTS at a cutoff CSA of greater than or equal to 12 mm2. Conclusions: The results of this study show that US measurements of the median nerve at the distal wrist crease discriminate between normal and abnormal EDSs, and between mild CTS and moderate to severe CTS.

2022 ◽  
Qijun Gao ◽  
Fangfang Bie ◽  
Yinfu Hu ◽  
Yafeng Chen ◽  
Bo Yang

Abstract Background: At present, the mechanism of reciprocal ST-segment depression(RSTD) is still not clear.Methods: The electrocardiogram and angiography of 85 STEMI patients were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the characteristics of ST segment changes and explore the mechanism of RSTD.Results: A total of 85 patients were included, of which 75 were patients with RSTD (10 patients with anterior myocardial infarction had no RSTD), all 45 patients with inferior myocardial infarction had limb leads RSTD, and 37 of them had anterior lead ST segment depression.Thirty patients with anterior myocardial infarction were accompanied by mild ST segment changes in the limb leads. According to the characteristics of RSTD, it is speculated that the mechanism of RSTD is that the action potential of infarct area decreased , which could not offset the action potential in non-infarct area.Conclusion: the mechanism of RSTD in acute myocardial infarction maybe that the negative electrode action potential of the lead was weakened or disappeared, and the positive electrode action potential could not be completely offset, resulting in ST segment depression.

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