qt syndrome
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Dena Esfandyari ◽  
Bio Maria Ghéo Idrissou ◽  
Konstantin Hennis ◽  
Petros Avramopoulos ◽  
Anne Dueck ◽  

AbstractAbnormalities of ventricular action potential cause malignant cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Here, we aim to identify microRNAs that regulate the human cardiac action potential and ask whether their manipulation allows for therapeutic modulation of action potential abnormalities. Quantitative analysis of the microRNA targetomes in human cardiac myocytes identifies miR-365 as a primary microRNA to regulate repolarizing ion channels. Action potential recordings in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes show that elevation of miR-365 significantly prolongs action potential duration in myocytes derived from a Short-QT syndrome patient, whereas specific inhibition of miR-365 normalizes pathologically prolonged action potential in Long-QT syndrome myocytes. Transcriptome analyses in these cells at bulk and single-cell level corroborate the key cardiac repolarizing channels as direct targets of miR-365, together with functionally synergistic regulation of additional action potential-regulating genes by this microRNA. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments confirm miR-365-dependent regulation of repolarizing ionic current Iks. Finally, refractory period measurements in human myocardial slices substantiate the regulatory effect of miR-365 on action potential in adult human myocardial tissue. Our results delineate miR-365 to regulate human cardiac action potential duration by targeting key factors of cardiac repolarization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
K. D. Tiver ◽  
D. Dharmaprani ◽  
J. X. Quah ◽  
A. Lahiri ◽  
K. E. Waddell-Smith ◽  

Abstract Background Acquired long QT syndrome is an important and preventable cause of cardiac arrest. Certain medications and electrolyte disturbance are common contributors, and often coexist. In this case, we report five contributors to cardiac arrest. Case presentation This case is of a 51-year-old Caucasian female patient who presented with vomiting associated with hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. She subsequently received ondansetron and metoclopramide, on the background of chronic treatment with fluoxetine. She then suffered an in-hospital monitored cardiac arrest, with features of long QT and torsades de pointes retrospectively noted on her prearrest electrocardiogram. She was diagnosed with acquired long QT syndrome, and her QT interval later normalized after removal of offending causes. Conclusions This case highlights the importance of proper consideration prior to prescribing QT prolonging medications, especially in patients who have other risk factors for prolonged QT, such as electrolyte disturbances and pretreatment with QT prolonging medications.

Fujian Wu ◽  
Tianwei Guo ◽  
Lixiang Sun ◽  
Furong Li ◽  
Xiaofei Yang

AbstractHuman pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have great potential for disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine as they can differentiate into many different functional cell types via directed differentiation. However, the application of disease modeling is limited due to a time-consuming and labor-intensive process of introducing known pathogenic mutations into hPSCs. Base editing is a newly developed technology that enables the facile introduction of point mutations into specific loci within the genome of living cells without unwanted genome injured. We describe an optimized stepwise protocol to introduce disease-specific mutations of long QT syndrome (LQTs) into hPSCs. We highlight technical issues, especially those associated with introducing a point mutation to obtain isogenic hPSCs without inserting any resistance cassette and reproducible cardiomyocyte differentiation. Based on the protocol, we succeeded in getting hPSCs carrying LQTs pathogenic mutation with excellent efficiency (31.7% of heterozygous clones, 9.1% of homozygous clones) in less than 20 days. In addition, we also provide protocols to analyze electrophysiological of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes using multi-electrode arrays. This protocol is also applicable to introduce other disease-specific mutations into hPSCs. Graphical abstract

2021 ◽  
Ashley Johnson ◽  
Taylor L Crawford ◽  
Matthew C Trudeau

A major physiological role of hERG1 (human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene) potassium channels is to repolarize cardiac action potentials. Two isoforms, hERG1a and hERG1b, associate to form the native cardiac IKr current in vivo. Inherited mutations in hERG1a or hERG1b cause prolonged cardiac repolarization, Long QT Syndrome and sudden death arrhythmia. hERG1a subunits assemble with and enhance the number of hERG1b subunits at the plasma membrane, but the mechanism for the increase in hERG1b by hERG1a is not well understood. Here, we report that the hERG1a N-terminal PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain-N-linker region expressed in trans with hERG1b markedly increased hERG1b currents and increased biotin-labelled hERG1b protein at the membrane surface. hERG1b channels with a deletion of the 1b domain did not have a measurable increase in current or biotinylated protein when co-expressed with hERG1a PAS domain-N-linker regions indicating that the 1b domain was required for the increase in hERG1b. Using a biochemical pull-down interaction assay and a FRET hybridization experiment, we detected a direct interaction between the hERG1a PAS domain-N-linker region and the hERG1b N-terminal 1b domain. Using engineered deletions and alanine mutagenesis, we identified a short span of amino acids at positions 216-220 within the hERG1a N-linker region that were necessary for the upregulation of hERG1b. Taken together, we propose that direct structural interactions between the hERG1a N-linker region and the hERG1b N-terminal 1b domain increase hERG1b at the plasma membrane. Mechanisms that enhance hERG1b current would be anticipated to shorten action potentials, which could be anti-arrhythmic, and may point toward hERG1b or the hERG1a N-linker as molecular targets for therapy for Long QT syndrome.

Pietro Enea Lazzerini ◽  
Silvia Cantara ◽  
Iacopo Bertolozzi ◽  
Riccardo Accioli ◽  
Viola Salvini ◽  

Background Systemic inflammation and male hypogonadism are 2 increasingly recognized “nonconventional” risk factors for long‐QT syndrome and torsades de pointes (TdP). Specifically, inflammatory cytokines prolong, while testosterone shortens the heart rate–corrected QT interval (QTc) via direct electrophysiological effects on cardiomyocytes. Moreover, several studies demonstrated important interplays between inflammation and reduced gonad function in men. We hypothesized that, during inflammatory activation in men, testosterone levels decrease and that this enhances TdP risk by contributing to the overall prolonging effect of inflammation on QTc. Methods and Results We investigated (1) the levels of sex hormones and their relationship with inflammatory markers and QTc in male patients with different types of inflammatory diseases, during active phase and recovery; and (2) the association between inflammatory markers and sex hormones in a cohort of male patients who developed extreme QTc prolongation and TdP, consecutively collected over 10 years. In men with active inflammatory diseases, testosterone levels were significantly reduced, but promptly normalized in association with the decrease in C‐reactive protein and interleukin‐6 levels. Reduction of testosterone levels, which also inversely correlated with 17‐β estradiol over time, significantly contributed to inflammation‐induced QTc prolongation. In men with TdP, both active systemic inflammation and hypogonadism were frequently present, with significant correlations between C‐reactive protein, testosterone, and 17‐β estradiol levels; in these patients, increased C‐reactive protein and reduced testosterone were associated with a worse short‐term outcome of the arrhythmia. Conclusions During systemic inflammatory activation, interleukin‐6 elevation is associated with reduced testosterone levels in males, possibly deriving from an enhanced androgen‐to‐estrogen conversion. While transient, inflammatory hypotestosteronemia is significantly associated with an increased long‐QT syndrome/TdP risk in men.

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