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Updated Wednesday, 19 January 2022

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shenda Hong ◽  
Wenrui Zhang ◽  
Chenxi Sun ◽  
Yuxi Zhou ◽  
Hongyan Li

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the most fatal disease groups worldwide. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used tool for automatically detecting cardiac abnormalities, thereby helping to control and manage CVDs. To encourage more multidisciplinary researches, PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2020 (Challenge 2020) provided a public platform involving multi-center databases and automatic evaluations for ECG classification tasks. As a result, 41 teams successfully submitted their solutions and were qualified for rankings. Although Challenge 2020 was a success, there has been no in-depth methodological meta-analysis of these solutions, making it difficult for researchers to benefit from the solutions and results. In this study, we aim to systematically review the 41 solutions in terms of data processing, feature engineering, model architecture, and training strategy. For each perspective, we visualize and statistically analyze the effectiveness of the common techniques, and discuss the methodological advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we summarize five practical lessons based on the aforementioned analysis: (1) Data augmentation should be employed and adapted to specific scenarios; (2) Combining different features can improve performance; (3) A hybrid design of different types of deep neural networks (DNNs) is better than using a single type; (4) The use of end-to-end architectures should depend on the task being solved; (5) Multiple models are better than one. We expect that our meta-analysis will help accelerate the research related to ECG classification based on machine-learning models.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bethany H. James ◽  
Pantelitsa Papakyriacou ◽  
Matthew J. Gardener ◽  
Louise Gliddon ◽  
Christopher J. Weston ◽  
...  

Many chronic inflammatory diseases are treated by administration of “biological” therapies in terms of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies or Fc fusion proteins. These tools have widespread efficacy and are favored because they generally exhibit high specificity for target with a low toxicity. However, the design of clinically applicable humanized antibodies is complicated by the need to circumvent normal antibody clearance mechanisms to maintain therapeutic dosing, whilst avoiding development of off target antibody dependent cellular toxicity. Classically, professional phagocytic immune cells are responsible for scavenging and clearance of antibody via interactions with the Fc portion. Immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils express Fc receptor subsets, such as the FcγR that can then clear immune complexes. Another, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is key to clearance of IgG in vivo and serum half-life of antibody is explicitly linked to function of this receptor. The liver is a site of significant expression of FcRn and indeed several hepatic cell populations including Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), play key roles in antibody clearance. This combined with the fact that the liver is a highly perfused organ with a relatively permissive microcirculation means that hepatic binding of antibody has a significant effect on pharmacokinetics of clearance. Liver disease can alter systemic distribution or pharmacokinetics of antibody-based therapies and impact on clinical effectiveness, however, few studies document the changes in key membrane receptors involved in antibody clearance across the spectrum of liver disease. Similarly, the individual contribution of LSEC scavenger receptors to antibody clearance in a healthy or chronically diseased organ is not well characterized. This is an important omission since pharmacokinetic studies of antibody distribution are often based on studies in healthy individuals and thus may not reflect the picture in an aging or chronically diseased population. Therefore, in this review we consider the expression and function of key antibody-binding receptors on LSEC, and the features of therapeutic antibodies which may accentuate clearance by the liver. We then discuss the implications of this for the design and utility of monoclonal antibody-based therapies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthieu Petit ◽  
Edouard Jullien ◽  
Antoine Vieillard-Baron

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by protein-rich alveolar edema, reduced lung compliance and severe hypoxemia. Despite some evidence of improvements in mortality over recent decades, ARDS remains a major public health problem with 30% 28-day mortality in recent cohorts. Pulmonary vascular dysfunction is one of the pivot points of the pathophysiology of ARDS, resulting in a certain degree of pulmonary hypertension, higher levels of which are associated with morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary hypertension develops as a result of endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary vascular occlusion, increased vascular tone, extrinsic vessel occlusion, and vascular remodeling. This increase in right ventricular (RV) afterload causes uncoupling between the pulmonary circulation and RV function. Without any contractile reserve, the right ventricle has no adaptive reserve mechanism other than dilatation, which is responsible for left ventricular compression, leading to circulatory failure and worsening of oxygen delivery. This state, also called severe acute cor pulmonale (ACP), is responsible for excess mortality. Strategies designed to protect the pulmonary circulation and the right ventricle in ARDS should be the cornerstones of the care and support of patients with the severest disease, in order to improve prognosis, pending stronger evidence. Acute cor pulmonale is associated with higher driving pressure (≥18 cmH2O), hypercapnia (PaCO2 ≥ 48 mmHg), and hypoxemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 150 mmHg). RV protection should focus on these three preventable factors identified in the last decade. Prone positioning, the setting of positive end-expiratory pressure, and inhaled nitric oxide (INO) can also unload the right ventricle, restore better coupling between the right ventricle and the pulmonary circulation, and correct circulatory failure. When all these strategies are insufficient, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which improves decarboxylation and oxygenation and enables ultra-protective ventilation by decreasing driving pressure, should be discussed in seeking better control of RV afterload. This review reports the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension in ARDS, describes right heart function, and proposes an RV protective approach, ranging from ventilatory settings and prone positioning to INO and selection of patients potentially eligible for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO).


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jing Geng ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Huaping Dai ◽  
Chen Wang

Fatty acid metabolism, including the de novo synthesis, uptake, oxidation, and derivation of fatty acids, plays several important roles at cellular and organ levels. Recent studies have identified characteristic changes in fatty acid metabolism in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lungs, which implicates its dysregulation in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Here, we review the evidence for how fatty acid metabolism contributes to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, focusing on the profibrotic processes associated with specific types of lung cells, including epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. We also summarize the potential therapeutics that target this metabolic pathway in treating IPF.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carlos Minoru Omura ◽  
Daniela Dero Lüdtke ◽  
Verônica Vargas Horewicz ◽  
Paula Franson Fernandes ◽  
Taynah de Oliveira Galassi ◽  
...  

ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization (AJM) on mechanical hyperalgesia and peripheral and central inflammatory biomarkers after intraplantar (i.pl.) Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation.MethodsMale Swiss mice were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 7): Saline/Sham, CFA/Sham, and CFA/AJM. Five AJM sessions were carried out at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after CFA injection. von Frey test was used to assess mechanical hyperalgesia. Tissues from paw skin, paw muscle and spinal cord were collected to measure pro-inflammatory (TNF, IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β1) by ELISA. The macrophage phenotype at the inflammation site was evaluated by Western blotting assay using the Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS 2) and Arginase-1 immunocontent to identify M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively.ResultsOur results confirm a consistent analgesic effect of AJM following the second treatment session. AJM did not change cytokines levels at the inflammatory site, although it promoted a reduction in M2 macrophages. Also, there was a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF in the spinal cord.ConclusionTaken together, the results confirm the anti-hyperalgesic effect of AJM and suggest a central neuroimmunomodulatory effect in a model of persistent inflammation targeting the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kevin L. Webb ◽  
Paolo B. Dominelli ◽  
Sarah E. Baker ◽  
Stephen A. Klassen ◽  
Michael J. Joyner ◽  
...  

Humans elicit a robust series of physiological responses to maintain adequate oxygen delivery during hypoxia, including a transient reduction in hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) affinity. However, high Hb-O2 affinity has been identified as a beneficial adaptation in several species that have been exposed to high altitude for generations. The observed differences in Hb-O2 affinity between humans and species adapted to high altitude pose a central question: is higher or lower Hb-O2 affinity in humans more advantageous when O2 availability is limited? Humans with genetic mutations in hemoglobin structure resulting in high Hb-O2 affinity have shown attenuated cardiorespiratory adjustments during hypoxia both at rest and during exercise, providing unique insight into this central question. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the influence of high Hb-O2 affinity during hypoxia through comparison of cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments elicited by humans with high Hb-O2 affinity compared to those with normal Hb-O2 affinity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shahzad Ahmad Qureshi ◽  
Aziz Ul Rehman ◽  
Adil Aslam Mir ◽  
Muhammad Rafique ◽  
Wazir Muhammad

The proposed algorithm of inverse problem of computed tomography (CT), using limited views, is based on stochastic techniques, namely simulated annealing (SA). The selection of an optimal cost function for SA-based image reconstruction is of prime importance. It can reduce annealing time, and also X-ray dose rate accompanying better image quality. In this paper, effectiveness of various cost functions, namely universal image quality index (UIQI), root-mean-squared error (RMSE), structural similarity index measure (SSIM), mean absolute error (MAE), relative squared error (RSE), relative absolute error (RAE), and root-mean-squared logarithmic error (RMSLE), has been critically analyzed and evaluated for ultralow-dose X-ray CT of patients with COVID-19. For sensitivity analysis of this ill-posed problem, the stochastically estimated images of lung phantom have been reconstructed. The cost function analysis in terms of computational and spatial complexity has been performed using image quality measures, namely peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), Euclidean error (EuE), and weighted peak signal-to-noise ratio (WPSNR). It has been generalized for cost functions that RMSLE exhibits WPSNR of 64.33 ± 3.98 dB and 63.41 ± 2.88 dB for 8 × 8 and 16 × 16 lung phantoms, respectively, and it has been applied for actual CT-based image reconstruction of patients with COVID-19. We successfully reconstructed chest CT images of patients with COVID-19 using RMSLE with eighteen projections, a 10-fold reduction in radiation dose exposure. This approach will be suitable for accurate diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 having less immunity and sensitive to radiation dose.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yashvardhan Batta ◽  
Cody King ◽  
John Johnson ◽  
Natasha Haddad ◽  
Myriam Boueri ◽  
...  

COVID-19 patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions are at greater risk of severe illness due to the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) virus. This review evaluates the highest risk factors for these patients, not limited to pre-existing hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, hypercoagulation, ischemic heart disease, and a history of underlying heart conditions. SARS-CoV-2 may also precipitate de novo cardiac complications. The interplay between existing cardiac conditions and de novo cardiac complications is the focus of this review. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 patients present with hypercoagulation conditions, cardiac arrhythmias, as significant complications. Also, cardiac arrhythmias are another well-known cardiovascular-related complication seen in COVID-19 infections and merit discussion in this review. Amid the pandemic, myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported to a high degree in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Currently, the specific causative mechanism of the increased incidence of MI is unclear. However, studies suggest several links to high angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in myocardial and endothelial cells, systemic hyper-inflammation, an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand, and loss of ACE2-mediated cardio-protection. Furthermore, hypertension and SARS-CoV-2 infection patients’ prognosis has shown mixed results across current studies. For this reason, an in-depth analysis of the interactions between SARS-CoV2 and the ACE2 cardio-protective mechanism is warranted. Similarly, ACE2 receptors are also expressed in the cerebral cortex tissue, both in neurons and glia. Therefore, it seems very possible for both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems to be damaged leading to further dysregulation and increased risk of mortality risk. This review aims to discuss the current literature related to potential complications of COVID-19 infection with hypertension and the vasculature, including the cervical one. Finally, age is a significant prognostic indicator among COVID-19 patients. For a mean age group of 70 years, the main presenting symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, and a persistent cough. Elderly patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, particularly hypertension and diabetes, represent a significant group of critical cases with increased case fatality rates. With the current understanding of COVID-19, it is essential to explore the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 operates to improve clinical outcomes for patients suffering from underlying cardiovascular diseases and reduce the risk of such conditions de novo.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Katharina Kirsch ◽  
Christina Fercher ◽  
Stephanie Horstmann ◽  
Caroline von Reitzenstein ◽  
Julia Augustin ◽  
...  

Show jumping is a highly specialized equestrian discipline that requires technical skill but also power and fitness. Monitoring the horses’ aerobic performance is therefore essential in order to verify whether the training has induced the desired cardiovascular and muscular adaptations. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the validity of non-specific and discipline-specific field exercise tests for objective evaluation of aerobic performance in show jumpers. For this purpose, data obtained from horses competing at Junior and Young Rider level during show jumping competitions as well as field exercise tests were retrospectively analyzed. The effect of the level of difficulty, the horses’ age, the penalty score and the horses’ previous level of performance on blood lactate concentrations after show jumping competitions (100 observations in 49 horses) was evaluated by linear mixed effects models (horse as random effect). Estimated marginal means significantly increased from 140 (4.1 mmol/L) to 150 cm (5.2 mmol/L) classes (P = 0.02). Furthermore, post-exercise lactate values significantly increased with the horses’ age (P = 0.001). Another group of 12 horses performed a standardized incremental field exercise test on a track (SETtrack), a standardized show jumping course (SETcourse) and a standardized grid exercise (SETgrid) each on three consecutive days. Indices of aerobic performance, derived from the SETtrack [velocity at a heart rate of 140 bpm (V140) and at a lactate concentration of 2 mmol/L (VLa2)] were highly correlated with heart rate (V140: r = −0.75, P = 0.005; VLa2: r =−0.66, P = 0.02) and lactate (V140: r = −0.73, P = 0.02; VLa2: r = −0.72, P = 0.02) in response to SETcourse as well as heart rate during SETgrid (V140: r = −0.73, P = 0.02; VLa2: r = −0.76, P = 0.01). Subjective rating of muscular fatigue was significantly correlated to the mean heart rate during SETcourse (r = −0.64, P = 0.05) and SETgrid (r = −0.74, P = 0.02) but not to the aerobic indices calculated from SETtrack. Besides non-specific incremental field tests, performance monitoring in show jumpers should therefore also include discipline-specific tests that more closely reflect the internal load induced by show jumping competitions.


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