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Updated Sunday, 17 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michelle Schmid ◽  
Hans-Jürgen Gruber ◽  
Julia M. Kröpfl ◽  
Christina M. Spengler

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ying Guo ◽  
Bin Zhou ◽  
Tianli Sun ◽  
Yaya Zhang ◽  
Yongshun Jiang ◽  
...  

As ocean acidification (OA) is gradually increasing, concerns regarding its ecological impacts on marine organisms are growing. Our previous studies have shown that seawater acidification exerted adverse effects on physiological processes of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and the aim of the present study was to obtain energy-related evidence to verify and explain our previous findings. Thus, the same acidification system (pH: 7.7 or 7.1; acidification method: HCl addition or CO2 enrichment; experimental period: 21d) was set up, and the energy-related changes were assessed. The results showed that the energy charge (EC) and the gene expressions of cytochrome C oxidase (COX) reflecting the ATP synthesis rate increased significantly after acidification treatments. What’s more, the mussels exposed to acidification allocated more energy to gills and hemocytes. However, the total adenylate pool (TAP) and the final adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in M. edulis decreased significantly, especially in CO2 treatment group at pH 7.1. It was interesting to note that, TAP, ATP, and COXs gene expressions in CO2 treatment groups were all significantly lower than that in HCl treatment groups at the same pH, verifying that CO2-induced acidification exhibited more deleterious impacts on M. edulis, and ions besides H+ produced by CO2 dissolution were possible causes. In conclusion, energy-related changes in M. edulis responded actively to seawater acidification and varied with different acidification conditions, while the constraints they had at higher acidification levels suggest that M. edulis will have a limited tolerance to increasing OA in the future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tingting Hu ◽  
Yinmiao Dong ◽  
Chenghao Yang ◽  
Mingyi Zhao ◽  
Qingnan He

Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous cluster of immunologically mediated diseases, including asthma, food allergy (FA), allergic rhinitis (AR) and eczema, that have become major worldwide health problems. Over the past few decades, the spread of allergic diseases has displayed an increasing trend, and it has been reported that 22% of 1.39 billion people in 30 countries have a type of allergic disease. Undoubtedly, allergic diseases, which can be chronic, with significant morbidity, mortality and dynamic progression, impose major economic burdens on society and families; thus, exploring the cause of allergic diseases and reducing their prevalence is a top priority. Recently, it has been reported that the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota can provide vital signals for the development, function, and regulation of the immune system, and the above-mentioned contributions make the GI microbiota a key player in allergic diseases. Notably, the GI microbiota is highly influenced by the mode of delivery, infant diet, environment, antibiotic use and so on. Specifically, changes in the environment can result in the dysbiosis of the GI microbiota. The proper function of the GI microbiota depends on a stable cellular composition which in the case of the human microbiota consists mainly of bacteria. Large shifts in the ratio between these phyla or the expansion of new bacterial groups lead to a disease-promoting imbalance, which is often referred to as dysbiosis. And the dysbiosis can lead to alterations of the composition of the microbiota and subsequent changes in metabolism. Further, the GI microbiota can affect the physiological characteristics of the human host and modulate the immune response of the host. The objectives of this review are to evaluate the development of the GI microbiota, the main drivers of the colonization of the GI tract, and the potential role of the GI microbiota in allergic diseases and provide a theoretical basis as well as molecular strategies for clinical practice.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
D.L. Levesque ◽  
J. Nowack ◽  
J.G. Boyles

There is increasing recognition that rather than being fully homeothermic, most endotherms display some degree of flexibility in body temperature. However, the degree to which this occurs varies widely from the relatively strict homeothermy in species, such as humans to the dramatic seasonal hibernation seen in Holarctic ground squirrels, to many points in between. To date, attempts to analyse this variability within the framework generated by the study of thermal performance curves have been lacking. We tested if frequency distribution histograms of continuous body temperature measurements could provide a useful analogue to a thermal performance curve in endotherms. We provide examples from mammals displaying a range of thermoregulatory phenotypes, break down continuous core body temperature traces into various components (active and rest phase modes, spreads and skew) and compare these components to hypothetical performance curves. We did not find analogous patterns to ectotherm thermal performance curves, in either full datasets or by breaking body temperature values into more biologically relevant components. Most species had either bimodal or right-skewed (or both) distributions for both active and rest phase body temperatures, indicating a greater capacity for mammals to tolerate body temperatures elevated above the optimal temperatures than commonly assumed. We suggest that while core body temperature distributions may prove useful in generating optimal body temperatures for thermal performance studies and in various ecological applications, they may not be a good means of assessing the shape and breath of thermal performance in endotherms. We also urge researchers to move beyond only using mean body temperatures and to embrace the full variability in both active and resting temperatures in endotherms.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vikas Pandey ◽  
Lai-Hua Xie ◽  
Zhilin Qu ◽  
Zhen Song

Mitochondria fulfill the cell’s energy demand and affect the intracellular calcium (Ca2+) dynamics via direct Ca2+ exchange, the redox effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Ca2+ handling proteins, and other signaling pathways. Recent experimental evidence indicates that mitochondrial depolarization promotes arrhythmogenic delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) in cardiac myocytes. However, the nonlinear interactions among the Ca2+ signaling pathways, ROS, and oxidized Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) pathways make it difficult to reveal the mechanisms. Here, we use a recently developed spatiotemporal ventricular myocyte computer model, which consists of a 3-dimensional network of Ca2+ release units (CRUs) intertwined with mitochondria and integrates mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling and other complex signaling pathways, to study the mitochondrial regulation of DADs. With a systematic investigation of the synergistic or competing factors that affect the occurrence of Ca2+ waves and DADs during mitochondrial depolarization, we find that the direct redox effect of ROS on ryanodine receptors (RyRs) plays a critical role in promoting Ca2+ waves and DADs under the acute effect of mitochondrial depolarization. Furthermore, the upregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter can promote DADs through Ca2+-dependent opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTPs). Also, due to much slower dynamics than Ca2+ cycling and ROS, oxidized CaMKII activation and the cytosolic ATP do not appear to significantly impact the genesis of DADs during the acute phase of mitochondrial depolarization. However, under chronic conditions, ATP depletion suppresses and enhanced CaMKII activation promotes Ca2+ waves and DADs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Li Chaoqun ◽  
Zhao Yuqi ◽  
Zhou Shi ◽  
Yu Zhenghui ◽  
Wen Li

The reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during exercise act as a double-edged sword because they may cause oxidative damage but also play a role in the signaling pathways. A supplementation of exogenous antioxidants can reduce the total amount of ROS during exercise while it may also affect the ROS’ role in the signaling pathways of mitochondrial biogenesis. It has been suggested that hydrogen gas, as an antioxidant, can selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals but does not affect superoxide anion’s signal transduction. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 1-h hydrogen gas inhalation 30min prior to a treadmill exercise on the key biomarkers of mitochondrial biogenesis and related signaling pathways, and the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, with those of vitamin C, in the rat skeletal muscle. Eighty-one 8-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to three interventions (exercise-only, exercise+4%H2, and exercise+vitamin C at 500mg/kg weight, with 27 rats under each intervention), and sampled at pre-, immediately post and 4h post a 60-min treadmill exercise at speed of 27m/min and flat inclination, with nine rats in each sub-group. Expression of mitochondrial biogenetic markers and related signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscle, and concentrations of oxidative stress markers in serum were measured. Two-way ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis analyses showed that both hydrogen inhalation and vitamin C supplementation significantly reduced serum levels of MDA immediately after exercise and AGEs 4h after exercise. The pre-exercise supplement of vitamin C significantly reduced mitochondrial complex IV concentrations and PGC-1α, NRF-1, TFAM gene expression levels compared to the pre-exercise group, but the hydrogen gas intervention did not result in a reduction in these measurements. Unlike vitamin C, hydrogen inhalation did not blunt post-exercise mitochondrial biogenetic signals, but resulted in an increase in complex IV concentration, activation of PGC-1α, and TFAM and NRF-2 gene transcription, and up-regulation of PGC-1α protein expression. The findings indicated that hydrogen gas inhalation could play the role as an effective antioxidant in response to the exercise, whilst it did not significantly affect mitochondrial biogenesis. The dose–response relationship and antioxidant effects in different types of exercise for hydrogen inhalation require further investigation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Peng Wu ◽  
Wenjing Xiang ◽  
Chengke Yin ◽  
Shu Li

In recent years, blood pumps have become the bridge to heart transplantation for patients with heart failure. Portability and wearability of blood pumps should be considered to ensure patient satisfaction in everyday life. To date, the focus has been on the development of portable and wearable peripheral components, little attention has been paid to the portable and wearable performance of the blood pump itself. This study reported a novel design of a wearable and portable extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump. Based on an in-house centrifugal maglev blood pump, the wearable and portable blood pump was designed with parallel inlet and outlet pipes to improve the wearable performance. A ring cavity was set at the inlet to convert the circumferential velocity of the inlet pipe to an axial velocity. The hydraulic and hemolytic performance of the baseline and portable blood pumps were analyzed and compared. Compared with the baseline pump, the hydrodynamic and hemolytic performance of the portable pump has been maintained without serious degradation. The results of this study will improve the life quality of patients with heart failure, and enhance the clinical benefits of artificial heart.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Miguel Ángel Cámara-Vázquez ◽  
Ismael Hernández-Romero ◽  
Eduardo Morgado-Reyes ◽  
Maria S. Guillem ◽  
Andreu M. Climent ◽  
...  

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by complex and irregular propagation patterns, and AF onset locations and drivers responsible for its perpetuation are the main targets for ablation procedures. ECG imaging (ECGI) has been demonstrated as a promising tool to identify AF drivers and guide ablation procedures, being able to reconstruct the electrophysiological activity on the heart surface by using a non-invasive recording of body surface potentials (BSP). However, the inverse problem of ECGI is ill-posed, and it requires accurate mathematical modeling of both atria and torso, mainly from CT or MR images. Several deep learning-based methods have been proposed to detect AF, but most of the AF-based studies do not include the estimation of ablation targets. In this study, we propose to model the location of AF drivers from BSP as a supervised classification problem using convolutional neural networks (CNN). Accuracy in the test set ranged between 0.75 (SNR = 5 dB) and 0.93 (SNR = 20 dB upward) when assuming time independence, but it worsened to 0.52 or lower when dividing AF models into blocks. Therefore, CNN could be a robust method that could help to non-invasively identify target regions for ablation in AF by using body surface potential mapping, avoiding the use of ECGI.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sandrine Morel ◽  
Sabine Schilling ◽  
Mannekomba R. Diagbouga ◽  
Matteo Delucchi ◽  
Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat ◽  
...  

Background: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) result from abnormal enlargement of the arterial lumen. IAs are mostly quiescent and asymptomatic, but their rupture leads to severe brain damage or death. As the evolution of IAs is hard to predict and intricates medical decision, it is essential to improve our understanding of their pathophysiology. Wall shear stress (WSS) is proposed to influence IA growth and rupture. In this study, we investigated the effects of low and supra-high aneurysmal WSS on endothelial cells (ECs).Methods: Porcine arterial ECs were exposed for 48 h to defined levels of shear stress (2, 30, or 80 dyne/cm2) using an Ibidi flow apparatus. Immunostaining for CD31 or γ-cytoplasmic actin was performed to outline cell borders or to determine cell architecture. Geometry measurements (cell orientation, area, circularity and aspect ratio) were performed on confocal microscopy images. mRNA was extracted for RNAseq analysis.Results: ECs exposed to low or supra-high aneurysmal WSS were more circular and had a lower aspect ratio than cells exposed to physiological flow. Furthermore, they lost the alignment in the direction of flow observed under physiological conditions. The effects of low WSS on differential gene expression were stronger than those of supra-high WSS. Gene set enrichment analysis highlighted that extracellular matrix proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and more particularly the actin protein family were among the protein classes the most affected by shear stress. Interestingly, most genes showed an opposite regulation under both types of aneurysmal WSS. Immunostainings for γ-cytoplasmic actin suggested a different organization of this cytoskeletal protein between ECs exposed to physiological and both types of aneurysmal WSS.Conclusion: Under both aneurysmal low and supra-high WSS the typical arterial EC morphology molds to a more spherical shape. Whereas low WSS down-regulates the expression of cytoskeletal-related proteins and up-regulates extracellular matrix proteins, supra-high WSS induces opposite changes in gene expression of these protein classes. The differential regulation in EC gene expression observed under various WSS translate into a different organization of the ECs’ architecture. This adaptation of ECs to different aneurysmal WSS conditions may affect vascular remodeling in IAs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Massimiliano Petracci ◽  
Sandra G. Velleman

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