output constraints
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Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 48
Jinfang Zhang ◽  
Yuzhuo Zhai ◽  
Zhongya Han ◽  
Jiahui Lu

Setting sights on the problem of input-output constraints in most industrial systems, an implicit generalized predictive control algorithm based on an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is presented in this paper. PSO has the advantages of high precision and fast convergence speed in solving constraint problems. In order to effectively avoid the problems of premature and slow operation in the later stage, combined with the idea of the entropy of system (SR), a new weight attenuation strategy and local jump out optimization strategy are introduced into PSO. The velocity update mechanism is cancelled, and the algorithm is adjusted respectively in the iterative process and after falling into local optimization. The improved PSO is used to optimize the performance index in predictive control. The combination of PSO and gradient optimization for rolling-horizon improves the optimization effect of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the system overshoot is reduced by about 7.5% and the settling time is reduced by about 6% compared with the implicit generalized predictive control algorithm based on particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-IGPC).

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8493
Adnan Khalid ◽  
Mujtaba Hussain Jaffery ◽  
Muhammad Yaqoob Javed ◽  
Adnan Yousaf ◽  
Jehangir Arshad ◽  

It is imperative to find new places other than Earth for the survival of human beings. Mars could be the alternative to Earth in the future for us to live. In this context, many missions have been performed to examine the planet Mars. For such missions, planetary precision landing is a major challenge for the precise landing on Mars. Mars landing consists of different phases (hypersonic entry, parachute descent, terminal descent comprising gravity turn, and powered descent). However, the focus of this work is the powered descent phase of landing. Firstly, the main objective of this study is to minimize the landing error during the powered descend landing phase. The second objective involves constrained optimization in a predictive control framework for landing at non-cooperative sites. Different control algorithms like PID and LQR have been developed for the stated problem; however, the predictive control algorithm with constraint handling’s ability has not been explored much. This research discusses the Model Predictive Control algorithm for the powered descent phase of landing. Model Predictive Control (MPC) considers input/output constraints in the calculation of the control law and thus it is very useful for the stated problem as shown in the results. The main novelty of this work is the implementation of Explicit MPC, which gives comparatively less computational time than MPC. A comparison is done among MPC variants in terms of feasibility, constraints handling, and computational time. Moreover, other conventional control algorithms like PID and LQR are compared with the proposed predictive algorithm. These control algorithms are implemented on quadrotor UAV (which emulates the dynamics of a planetary lander) to verify the feasibility through simulations in MATLAB.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10668
Trieu Minh Vu ◽  
Reza Moezzi ◽  
Jindrich Cyrus ◽  
Jaroslav Hlava ◽  
Michal Petru

This paper presents the modelling and calculations for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in parallel configuration, including a main electrical driving motor (EM), an internal combustion engine (ICE), and a starter/generator motor. The modelling equations of the HEV include vehicle acceleration and jerk, so that simulations can investigate the vehicle drivability and comfortability with different control parameters. A model predictive control (MPC) scheme with softened constraints for this HEV is developed. The new MPC with softened constraints shows its superiority over the MPC with hard constraints as it provides a faster setpoint tracking and smoother clutch engagement. The conversion of some hard constraints into softened constraints can improve the MPC stability and robustness. The MPC with softened constraints can maintain the system stability, while the MPC with hard constraints becomes unstable if some input constraints lead to the violation of output constraints.

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