network cost
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Vikas Babani ◽  
Charulata ◽  
Pragya ◽  
Prateek ◽  
Rajeev Arya ◽  

Sadeque Hamdan ◽  
Ali Cheaitou ◽  
Oualid Jouini ◽  
Tobias Andersson Granberg ◽  
Zied Jemai ◽  

Despite various planning efforts, airspace capacity can sometimes be exceeded, typically because of disruptive events. Air traffic flow management (ATFM) is the process of managing flights in this situation. In this paper, we present an ATFM model that accounts for different rerouting options (path rerouting and diversion) and preexisting en route flights. The model proposes having a central authority to control all decisions, which is then compared with current practice. We also consider interflight and interairline fairness measures in the network. We use an exact approach to solve small- to medium-sized instances, and we propose a modified fix-and-relax heuristic to solve large-sized instances. Allowing a central authority to control all decisions increases network efficiency compared with the case where the ATFM authority and airlines control decisions independently. Our experiments show that including different rerouting options in ATFM can help reduce delays by up to 8% and cancellations by up to 23%. Moreover, ground delay cost has much more impact on network decisions than air delay cost, and network decisions are insensitive to changes in diversion cost. Furthermore, the analysis of the tradeoff between total network cost and overtaking cost shows that adding costs for overtaking can significantly improve fairness at only a small increase in total system cost. A balanced total cost per flight among airlines can be achieved at a small increase in the network cost (0.2%–3.0%) when imposing airline fairness. In conclusion, the comprehensiveness of the model makes it useful for analyzing a wide range of alternatives for efficient ATFM.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (11) ◽  
pp. 155014772110331
Jung-hyun Seo ◽  
HyeongOk Lee

One method to create a high-performance computer is to use parallel processing to connect multiple computers. The structure of the parallel processing system is represented as an interconnection network. Traditionally, the communication links that connect the nodes in the interconnection network use electricity. With the advent of optical communication, however, optical transpose interconnection system networks have emerged, which combine the advantages of electronic communication and optical communication. Optical transpose interconnection system networks use electronic communication for relatively short distances and optical communication for long distances. Regardless of whether the interconnection network uses electronic communication or optical communication, network cost is an important factor among the various measures used for the evaluation of networks. In this article, we first propose a novel optical transpose interconnection system–Petersen-star network with a small network cost and analyze its basic topological properties. Optical transpose interconnection system–Petersen-star network is an undirected graph where the factor graph is Petersen-star network. OTIS–PSN n has the number of nodes 102n, degree n+3, and diameter 6 n − 1. Second, we compare the network cost between optical transpose interconnection system–Petersen-star network and other optical transpose interconnection system networks. Finally, we propose a routing algorithm with a time complexity of 6 n − 1 and a one-to-all broadcasting algorithm with a time complexity of 2 n − 1.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (19) ◽  
pp. 6548
Gang Qiao ◽  
Qipei Liu ◽  
Songzuo Liu ◽  
Bilal Muhammad ◽  
Menghua Wen

Topology control is one of the most essential technologies in wireless sensor networks (WSNs); it constructs networks with certain characteristics through the usage of some approaches, such as power control and channel assignment, thereby reducing the inter-nodes interference and the energy consumption of the network. It is closely related to the efficiency of upper layer protocols, especially MAC and routing protocols, which are the same as underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). Directional antenna technology (directional transducer in UASNs) has great advantages in minimizing interference and conserving energy by restraining the beamforming range. It enables nodes to communicate with only intended neighbors; nevertheless, additional problems emerge, such as how to guarantee the connectivity of the network. This paper focuses on the connectivity problem of UASNs equipped with tri-modal directional transducers, where the orientation of a transducer is stabilized after the network is set up. To efficiently minimize the total network energy consumption under constraint of connectivity, the problem is formulated to a minimum network cost transducer orientation (MNCTO) problem and is provided a reduction from the Hamiltonian path problem in hexagonal grid graphs (HPHGG), which is proved to be NP-complete. Furthermore, a heuristic greedy algorithm is proposed for MNCTO. The simulation evaluation results in a contrast with its omni-mode peer, showing that the proposed algorithm greatly reduces the network energy consumption by up to nearly half on the premise of satisfying connectivity.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (19) ◽  
pp. 6474
Shalli Rani ◽  
Deepika Koundal ◽  
Kavita ◽  
Muhammad Fazal Ijaz ◽  
Mohamed Elhoseny ◽  

The advancements in Industry 4.0 have opened up new ways for the structural deployment of Smart Grids (SGs) to face the endlessly rising challenges of the 21st century. SGs for Industry 4.0 can be better managed by optimized routing techniques. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the topology is not fixed and can be encountered by interference, mobility of nodes, propagation of multi-paths, and path loss. To extenuate these concerns for SGs, in this paper, we have presented a new version of the standard Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for SGs to improve the management of control intervals that enhance the efficiency of the standard OLSR protocol without affecting its reliability. The adapted fault tolerant approach makes the proposed protocol more reliable for industrial applications. The process of grouping of nodes supports managing the total network cost by reducing severe flooding and evaluating an optimized head of clusters. The head of the unit is nominated according to the first defined expectation factor. With a sequence of rigorous performance evaluations under simulation parameters, the simulation results show that the proposed version of OLSR has proliferated Quality of Service (QoS) metrics when it is compared against the state-of-the-art-based conventional protocols, namely, standard OLSR, DSDV, AOMDV and hybrid routing technique.

2021 ◽  
Mohamed Salim Amri Sakhri ◽  
Mounira Tlili ◽  
Ouajdi Korbaa

Abstract In a supply chain, inventory is the single largest source of costs for a company. This is due to the various physical and informational activities that accompany inventory management, primarily the holding and transportation of inventory. Companies are looking to streamline these activities and minimize the associated costs. One of the most coveted models to jointly solve these two problems is the Inventory Routing Problem (IRP), which will be the focus of this study. This paper addresses the case of a deterministic replenishment demand in a distribution network consisting of a supplier and a number of customers to be served by a single vehicle over a finite planning horizon. We will first study the impact of increasing supplier lead times on network costs. Then, we will study the effects of the Lateral Transshipment (LT) technique on the overall network cost. A mathematical model is developed and solved by an exact method. The results obtained will show that LT is an effective tool capable of improving the total network cost and balancing the customers’ inventory level.

2021 ◽  
pp. 108326
Rong Chai ◽  
Xizheng Yang ◽  
Chunling Du ◽  
Qianbin Chen

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-87

We investigate the cost allocation strategy associated with the problem of providing service /communication between all pairs of network nodes. There is a cost associated with each link and the communication between any pair of nodes can be delivered via paths connecting those nodes. The example of a cost efficient solution which could provide service for all node pairs is a (non-rooted) minimum cost spanning tree. The cost of such a solution should be distributed among users who might have conflicting interests. The objective of this paper is to formulate the above cost allocation problem as a cooperative game, to be referred to as a Network Connectivity (NC) game, and develop a stable and efficient cost allocation scheme. The NC game is related to the Minimum Cost Spanning Tree games and to the Shortest Path games. The profound difference is that in those games the service is delivered from some common source node to the rest of the network, while in the NC game there is no source and the service is established through the two-way interaction among all pairs of participating nodes. We formulate Network Connectivity (NC) game and construct an efficient cost allocation algorithm which finds some points in the core of the NC game. Finally, we discuss the Egalitarian Network Cost Allocation (ENCA) rule and demonstrate that it finds an additional core point.

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