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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 509-522
Luciana Nunes Cordeiro ◽  
Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno ◽  
Lucas Kennedy Silva Lima ◽  
Albericio Pereira de Andrade ◽  

Seed quality is routinely assessed by direct tests, e.g, the germination test, or indirect tests like the tetrazolium test, which has shoown to be promising in the determine viability and vigor, allowing the diagnosis of the main problems that may affect seed quality, such as mechanic damages, field deterioration and storage. In this respect, this study was conducted to develop a tetrazolium test protocol to evaluate the viability and vigor of Tamarindus indica L. seeds. Before exposing the seeds to the tetrazolium solution, seed preconditioning studies were carried out in which seven soaking times were tested. The soaking time that did not cause damage to the seed embryo and allowed the removal of the seed coat to expose the seed structures to the tetrazolium salt was selected. Then, an experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement involving two seed lots, three soaking times in tetrazolium salt (6, 12 and 16 h) and three salt concentrations (0.075, 0.1 and 0.5%), totaling 18 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds, evaluated at 40 ºC. For each treatment, the seeds were divided into three classes, namely, viable and vigorous embryos (class 1); viable embryos (class 2) and non-viable or dead embryos (class 3). For a comparison with the tetrazolium test results, the two seed lots were analyzed for water content, germination, emergence, first count, germination speed index, emergence speed index, growth and seedling dry weight. The viability and vigor of T. indica seeds can be evaluated after a soaking period of 48 h and immersion for 6h in tetrazolium salt at the concentration of 0.1%, at 40°C, with provides results similar to conventional seed viability tests. The tetrazolium test proved to be adequate to differentiate T. indica seed lots in terms of viability.

Nurshahrily Idura Ramli ◽  
Mohd Izani Mohamed Rawi ◽  
Fatin Nur Nabila Rebuan

Today, in the realm of Industry 4.0, vastly diverse Internet of Things (IoT) technology are integrated everywhere, not to mention included in academic programs in schools and universities. Domain ratio of the final year projects in Universiti Teknologi Mara exposes a staggering hype in IoT as compared to other domains despite not having IoT included in any of the courses. Meanwhile, to fulfill the needs of the student in exploring this technology, an integrated IoT learning platform is developed. It integrates an IoT smart home model and a web-based interface as a learning platform to inspire hands-on learning for the students. The raspberry pi, motion sensor, analog gas sensor, atmospheric sensor, ultrasonic proximity sensor, and rain detector sensor are integrated together in a Lego-built smart home model where its connectivity and readings are displayed in a simple web interface to enable and inspire learning. A manual to set up the entire model is also prepared as a guide for students to set up and further explore the functionalities and operabilities of “things”.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Lijuan Song

In order to meet the needs of ecological buildings, it is necessary to improve the speed of sewage treatment. Therefore, this study analyzed the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the water supply and drainage of ecological buildings. In the experiment, zinc oxide nanoparticles were selected and the experimental environment was set up to study the treatment effect of nano particles on water supply and drainage wastewater. The experimental results show that: the application of ZnO nanoparticles in water supply and drainage can effectively remove trace elements in sewage and reduce the eutrophication of groundwater; zinc oxide nanoparticles can change the morphology of mold group in sewage and inhibit the growth of sewage. The application of ZnO nanoparticles in the water supply and drainage of ecological buildings can effectively improve the water purification rate and improve the recycling efficiency of water resources.

Dr. Sultanuddin SJ ◽  
Dr. Md. Ali Hussain ◽  

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have evolved into a leading multi-hop infrastructure less wireless communication technology where every node performs the function of a router. Ad- hoc networks have been spontaneously and specifically designed for the nodes to communicate with each other in locations where it is either complex or impractical to set up an infrastructure. The overwhelming truth is that with IoT emergence, the number of devices being connected every single second keeps increasing tremendously on account of factors like scalability, cost factor and scalability which are beneficial to several sectors like education, disaster management, healthcare, espionage etc., where the identification and allocation of resources as well as services is a major constraint. Nevertheless, this infrastructure with dynamic mobile nodes makes it more susceptible to diverse attack scenarios especially in critical circumstances like combat zone communications where security is inevitable and vulnerabilities in the MANET could be an ideal choice to breach the security. Therefore, it is crucial to select a robust and reliable system that could filter malicious activities and safeguard the network. Network topology and mobility constraints poses difficulty in identifying malicious nodes that can infuse false routes or packets could be lost due to certain attacks like black hole or worm hole. Hence our objective is to propose a security solution to above mentioned issue through ML based anomaly detection and which detects and isolates the attacks in MANETs. Most of the existing technologies detect the anomalies by utilizing static behavior; this may not prove effective as MANET portrays dynamic behavior. Machine learning in MANETs helps in constructing an analytical model for predicting security threats that could pose enormous challenges in future. Machine learning techniques through its statistical and logical methods offers MANETs the learning potential and encourages towards adaptation to different environments. The major objective of our study is to identify the intricate patterns and construct a secure mobile ad-hoc network by focusing on security aspects by identifying malicious nodes and mitigate attacks. Simulation-oriented results establish that the proposed technique has better PDR and EED in comparison to the other existing techniques.

2022 ◽  
Emil Juvan ◽  
Bettina Grün ◽  
Sara Dolnicar

Tourists bite off more than they can chew at hotel breakfast buffets. Food waste from hotel buffets means unnecessary food cost for hotels as well as an unnecessary burden on the environment. The present study measured food waste at a hotel breakfast buffet and identified the following guest and breakfast characteristics as being significantly associated with higher plate waste: more children in the guest mix, more Russians and less Austrians or Germans, fewer hotel guests in the breakfast buffet area as well as more buffet stations being set up. These insights contribute to knowledge on environmental sustainability in tourism, pointing to interesting market segments for targeting in high demand periods as well as promising target segments for interventions (e.g., families) and indicate that simple measures such as rearrangements of the breakfast room may reduce food waste.

عقبة عبد النافع العلي

The study aimed to investigate the negotiation skills which can contribute to bridging the gap between different points of view and reflecting the spirit of understanding. Collected from scientific sources and references, the data were systemically interpreted. The study consisted of three sections: the concept of negotiation, negotiation skills, types of negotiators and the most important factors that can affect the negotiation process. The study reached the following findings: 1. Negotiation is an inherent process in human life as long as man lives with others and enters into different, changing and continuous life relationships. 2. Negotiators are expected to have the skills, experience and capabilities that enable them to set up a strategy for planning and negotiation with integration in performance. The study came up with the following recommendations: 1. People working in the field of negotiations should be provided with the required training and qualifications. 2. Identifying the objectives of negotiations is required to set up a successful strategy for the negotiation process.

J. Jeyanathan ◽  
D. Bootland ◽  
A. Al-Rais ◽  
J. Leung ◽  
J. Wijesuriya ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has placed exceptional demand on Intensive Care Units, necessitating the critical care transfer of patients on a regional and national scale. Performing these transfers required specialist expertise and involved moving patients over significant distances. Air Ambulance Kent Surrey Sussex created a designated critical care transfer team and was one of the first civilian air ambulances in the United Kingdom to move ventilated COVID-19 patients by air. We describe the practical set up of such a service and the key lessons learned from the first 50 transfers. Methods Retrospective review of air critical care transfer service set up and case review of first 50 transfers. Results We describe key elements of the critical care transfer service, including coordination and activation; case interrogation; workforce; training; equipment; aircraft modifications; human factors and clinical governance. A total of 50 missions are described between 18 December 2020 and 1 February 2021. 94% of the transfer missions were conducted by road. The mean age of these patients was 58 years (29–83). 30 (60%) were male and 20 (40%) were female. The mean total mission cycle (time of referral until the time team declared free at receiving hospital) was 264 min (range 149–440 min). The mean time spent at the referring hospital prior to leaving for the receiving unit was 72 min (31–158). The mean transfer transit time between referring and receiving units was 72 min (9–182). Conclusion Critically ill COVID-19 patients have highly complex medical needs during transport. Critical care transfer of COVID-19-positive patients by civilian HEMS services, including air transfer, can be achieved safely with specific planning, protocols and precautions. Regional planning of COVID-19 critical care transfers is required to optimise the time available of critical care transfer teams.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Jingwen Ai ◽  
Liuqing Yang ◽  
Yanfen Liu ◽  
Kunyong Yu ◽  
Jian Liu

Island ecosystems have distinct and unique vulnerabilities that place them at risk from threats to their ecology and socioeconomics. Spatially exhibiting the fragmentation process of island landscapes and identifying their driving factors are the fundamental prerequisites for the maintenance of island ecosystems and the rational utilization of islands. Haitan Island was chosen as a case study for understanding landscape fragmentation on urbanizing Islands. Based on remote sensing technology, three Landsat images from 2000 to 2020, landscape pattern index, transect gradient analysis, and moving window method were used in this study. The results showed that from 2000 to 2020, impervious land increased by 462.57%. In 2000, the predominant landscape was cropland (46.34%), which shifted to impervious land (35.20%) and forest (32.90%) in 2020. Combining the moving window method and Semivariogram, 1050 m was considered to be the best scale to reflect the landscape fragmentation of Haitan Island. Under this scale, it was found that the landscape fragmentation of Haitan Island generally increased with time and had obvious spatial heterogeneity. We set up sampling bands along the coastline and found that the degree of landscape fragmentation, advancing from the coast inland, was decreasing. Transects analysis showed the fragmentation intensity of the coastal zone: the north-western and southern wooded zones decreased, while the concentration of urban farmland in the north-central and southern areas increased. The implementation of a comprehensive experimental area plan on Haitan Island has disturbed the landscape considerably. In 2000, landscape fragmentation was mainly influenced by topography and agricultural production. The critical infrastructure construction, reclamation and development of landscape resources have greatly contributed to the urbanisation and tourism of Haitan Island, and landscape fragmentation in 2013 was at its highest. Due to China’s “Grain for Green Project” and the Comprehensive Territorial Spatial Planning policy (especially the protection of ecological control lines), the fragmentation of Haitan Island was slowing. This study investigated the optimal spatial scale for analyzing spatiotemporal changes in landscape fragmentation on Haitan Island from 2000 to 2020, and the essential influencing factors in urban islands from the perspective of natural environment and social development, which could provide a basis for land use management and ecological planning on the island.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 190-195
Vishal Mahajan ◽  
Shailly Mahajan

The COVID-19 pandemic has made the biggest disturbance of education frameworks in mankind's set of experiences, influencing almost 1.6 billion students in excess of 200 nations. Terminations of schools, Colleges and other learning institutions have affected over 94% of the world's understudy populace. This has brought sweeping changes in all parts of our lives. Social separating and prohibitive development strategies have fundamentally upset conventional instructive practices. Returning of schools after unwinding of limitation is one more test with numerous new standard working methodology set up. Inside a limited ability to focus the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous scientists have shared their chips away at educating and learning in an unexpected way. A few schools, universities and colleges have stopped up close and personal lessons. There is a dread of losing 2020 scholastic year or considerably more in the coming future. The need of great importance is to enhance and carry out elective instructive framework and appraisal procedures. The COVID-19 pandemic has furnished us with a chance to make ready for presenting advanced learning. This article expects to give an exhaustive report on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on internet educating and learning of different papers and show the way forward.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Fanlu Gui ◽  
Chun-Hua Tsai ◽  
John M. Carroll

Volunteers in non-profit groups are a valuable workforce that contributes to economic development and supports people in need in the U.S. However, many non-profit groups face challenges including engaging and sustaining volunteer participation, as well as increasing visibility of their work in the community. To support non-profit groups' service, we explored how engaging community members in the volunteer-acknowledgment process may have an impact. We set up workstations and invited community members to write thank-you cards to volunteers in non-profit groups. We conducted 14 interviews with volunteers and community members, collected and analyzed 25 thank-you cards. We found that the acknowledgment activity can help circulate social goods through multiple stakeholders, that authenticity was valued in the acknowledgment process, and that non-profit groups intended to distribute, reuse, and publicize the acknowledgments to utilize them to a fuller extent. Our contributions include expanding knowledge on experiences, needs, and impact of community acknowledgment from different stakeholders, as well as presenting design opportunities.

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