vehicular networks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-12
Mu-Yen Chen ◽  
Min-Hsuan Fan ◽  
Li-Xiang Huang

In recent years, vehicular networks have become increasingly large, heterogeneous, and dynamic, making it difficult to meet strict requirements of ultralow latency, high reliability, high security, and massive connections for next generation (6G) networks. Recently, deep learning (DL ) has emerged as a powerful artificial intelligence (AI ) technique to optimize the efficiency and adaptability of vehicle and wireless communication. However, rapidly increasing absolute numbers of vehicles on the roads are leading to increased automobile accidents, many of which are attributable to drivers interacting with their mobile phones. To address potentially dangerous driver behavior, this study applies deep learning approaches to image recognition to develop an AI-based detection system that can detect potentially dangerous driving behavior. Multiple convolutional neural network (CNN )-based techniques including VGG16, VGG19, Densenet, and Openpose were compared in terms of their ability to detect and identify problematic driving.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e33911125020
Francisco Jonatas Siqueira Coelho ◽  
Eulogio Gutierrez Huampo ◽  
Henrique Figueirôa Lacerda ◽  
Arthur Doria Meneses de Freitas ◽  
Abel Guilhermino da Silva Filho

The Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) technology, as a widest version of Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET), aims to interconnect vehicles and any other latest technological infrastructures. In this context, the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G) based on millimeter waves (mmWave) is an excellent alternative for the implementation of vehicular networks, mainly because it is capable of providing high data rates (Gbps) and ultra-low latency, requirements of C-V2X. On the other hand, mmWave signals are highly susceptible to blocking, causing low quality of service (QoS) in VANETs, compromising network functionality and the safety of drivers and pedestrians. Thus, in this work evolutionary computing techniques are applied in the simulation of a 5G vehicular network based on millimeter waves, exploring Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer parameters to optimize packet loss, latency and throughput, in order to optimize inter-vehicular communication. The Multi-objective Flower Pollination Algorithm (MOFPA) was used for this purpose. The results obtained show that the adopted approach can reach results close to the optimal pareto of non-dominated solutions, with a 75% reduction in exploration time in relation to the exhaustive search process. Finally, the performance of the metaheuristics adopted is compared with the non-dominated genetic classification algorithm (NSGA-II) and the multi-objective differential evolutionary algorithm (MODE).

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 401
Sidra Abid Syed ◽  
Munaf Rashid ◽  
Samreen Hussain ◽  
Fahad Azim ◽  
Hira Zahid ◽  

Software-defined network (SDN) and vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) combined provided a software-defined vehicular network (SDVN). To increase the quality of service (QoS) of vehicle communication and to make the overall process efficient, researchers are working on VANET communication systems. Current research work has made many strides, but due to the following limitations, it needs further investigation and research: Cloud computing is used for messages/tasks execution instead of fog computing, which increases response time. Furthermore, a fault tolerance mechanism is used to reduce the tasks/messages failure ratio. We proposed QoS aware and fault tolerance-based software-defined V vehicular networks using Cloud-fog computing (QAFT-SDVN) to address the above issues. We provided heuristic algorithms to solve the above limitations. The proposed model gets vehicle messages through SDN nodes which are placed on fog nodes. SDN controllers receive messages from nearby SDN units and prioritize the messages in two different ways. One is the message nature way, while the other one is deadline and size way of messages prioritization. SDN controller categorized in safety and non-safety messages and forward to the destination. After sending messages to their destination, we check their acknowledgment; if the destination receives the messages, then no action is taken; otherwise, we use a fault tolerance mechanism. We send the messages again. The proposed model is implemented in CloudSIm and iFogSim, and compared with the latest models. The results show that our proposed model decreased response time by 50% of the safety and non-safety messages by using fog nodes for the SDN controller. Furthermore, we reduced the execution time of the safety and non-safety messages by up to 4%. Similarly, compared with the latest model, we reduced the task failure ratio by 20%, 15%, 23.3%, and 22.5%.

Jinsong Gui ◽  
Yao Liu

AbstractMillimeter Wave (mmWave) technology has been regarded as a feasible approach for future vehicular communications. Nevertheless, high path loss and penetration loss raise severe questions on mmWave communications. These problems can be mitigated by directional communication, which is not easy to achieve in highly dynamic vehicular communications. The existing works addressed the beam alignment problem by designing online learning-based mmWave beam selection schemes, which can be well adapted to high dynamic vehicular scenarios. However, this kind of work focuses on network throughput rather than network energy efficiency, which ignores the consideration of energy consumption. Therefore, we propose an Energy efficiency-based FML (EFML) scheme to compensate for this shortfall. In EFML, the energy consumption is reduced as far as possible under the premise of meeting the basic data rate requirements of vehicle users, and the users requesting the same content in close proximity can be organized into the same receiving group to share the same mmWave beam. The simulation results demonstrate that, compare with the comparison method with best energy efficiency, the proposed EFML improves energy efficiency by 17–41% in different scenarios.

Syed Danial Ali Shah ◽  
Mark A Gregory ◽  
Shuo Li ◽  
Ramon Fontes ◽  
Ling Hou

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (3) ◽  
pp. 6089-6106
Shahid Sultan ◽  
Qaisar Javaid ◽  
Eid Rehman ◽  
Ahmad Aziz Alahmadi ◽  
Nasim Ullah ◽  

IEEE Access ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-1
Abdul Waheed ◽  
Munam Ali Shah ◽  
Syed Muhammad Mohsin ◽  
Abid Khan ◽  
Carsten Maple ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (0) ◽  
pp. 22-29
Susumu Ishihara ◽  
Kaito Furukawa ◽  
Haruka Kikuchi

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