communication systems
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Yazan Alkhlefat ◽  
Sevia Mahdaliza Idrus Sutan Nameh ◽  
Farabi M. Iqbal

Current and future wireless communication systems are designed to achieve the user’s demands such as high data rate and high speed with low latency and simultaneously to save bandwidth and spectrum. In 5G and 6G networks, a high speed of transmitting and switching is required for internet of things (IoT) applications with higher capacity. To achieve these requirements a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is considered as a wavelength converter to transmit a signal with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with subcarrier power modulation (OFDM-SPM). It exploits the subcarrier’s power in conventional OFDM block in order to send additional bits beside the normally transmitted bits. In this paper, we optimized the SOA’s parameters to have efficient wavelength conversion process. These parameters are included the injection current (IC) of SOA, power of pump and probe signals. A 7 Gbps OFDM-SPM signal with a millimeter waves (MMW) carrier of 80 GHz is considered for signal switching. The simulation results investigated and analyzed the performance of the designed system in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM), bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). The optimum value of IC is 0.6 A while probe power is 9.45 and 8.9 dBm for pump power. The simulation is executed by virtual photonic integrated (VPI) software.

Vo Trung Dung Huynh ◽  
Linh Mai ◽  
Hung Ngoc Do ◽  
Minh Ngoc Truong Nguyen ◽  
Trung Kien Pham

<span>High-speed Terahertz communication systems has recently employed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing approach as it provides high spectral efficiency and avoids inter-symbol interference caused by dispersive channels. Such high-speed systems require extremely high-sampling <br /> time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters at the receiver. However, timing mismatch of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters significantly causes system performance degradation. In this paper, to avoid such performance degradation induced by timing mismatch, we theoretically determine maximum tolerable mismatch levels for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication systems. To obtain these levels, we first propose an analytical method to derive the bit error rate formula for quadrature and pulse amplitude modulations in Rayleigh fading channels, assuming binary reflected gray code (BRGC) mapping. Further, from the derived bit error rate (BER) expressions, we reveal a threshold of timing mismatch level for which error floors produced by the mismatch will be smaller than a given BER. Simulation results demonstrate that if we preserve mismatch level smaller than 25% of this obtained threshold, the BER performance degradation is smaller than 0.5 dB as compared to the case without timing mismatch.</span>

Musa Hussain ◽  
Syeda Iffat Naqvi ◽  
Wahaj Abbas Awan ◽  
Wael Abd Ellatif Ali ◽  
Esraa Mousa Ali ◽  

Sonti Swapna

Abstract: A combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technologies can be employed in modern wireless communication systems to achieve high data rates and improved spectrum efficiency. For multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, this paper provides a Rayleigh fading channel estimation technique based on pilot carriers. The channel is estimated using traditional Least Square (LS) and Minimum Mean Square (MMSE) estimation techniques. The MIMO-OFDM system's performance is measured using the Bit Error Rate (BER) and Mean Square Error (MSE) levels. Keywords: MIMO, MMSE, Channel estimation, BER, OFDM

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 667
Ahmed Saad Elkorany ◽  
Alyaa Nehru Mousa ◽  
Sarosh Ahmad ◽  
Demyana Adel Saleeb ◽  
Adnan Ghaffar ◽  

Antennas in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are characterized by the enhanced capacity of the network, longer range of transmission, better spatial reuse, and lower interference. In this paper, we propose a planar patch antenna for mobile communication applications operating at 1.8, 3.5, and 5.4 GHz. A planar microstrip patch antenna (MPA) consists of two F-shaped resonators that enable operations at 1.8 and 3.5 GHz while operation at 5.4 GHz is achieved when the patch is truncated from the middle. The proposed planar patch is printed on a low-cost FR-4 substrate that is 1.6 mm in thickness. The equivalent circuit model is also designed to validate the reflection coefficient of the proposed antenna with the S11 obtained from the circuit model. It contains three RLC (resistor–inductor–capacitor) circuits for generating three frequency bands for the proposed antenna. Thereby, we obtained a good agreement between simulation and measurement results. The proposed antenna has an elliptically shaped radiation pattern at 1.8 and 3.5 GHz, while the broadside directional pattern is obtained at the 5.4 GHz frequency band. At 1.8, 3.5, and 5.4 GHz, the simulated peak realized gains of 2.34, 5.2, and 1.42 dB are obtained and compared to the experimental peak realized gains of 2.22, 5.18, and 1.38 dB at same frequencies. The results indicate that the proposed planar patch antenna can be utilized for mobile applications such as digital communication systems (DCS), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), and wireless local area networks (WLAN).

Photonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Mónica Far Brusatori ◽  
Nicolas Volet

To increase the spectral efficiency of coherent communication systems, lasers with ever-narrower linewidths are required as they enable higher-order modulation formats with lower bit-error rates. In particular, semiconductor lasers are a key component due to their compactness, low power consumption, and potential for mass production. In field-testing scenarios their output is coupled to a fiber, making them susceptible to external optical feedback (EOF). This has a detrimental effect on its stability, thus it is traditionally countered by employing, for example, optical isolators and angled output waveguides. In this work, EOF is explored in a novel way with the aim to reduce and stabilize the laser linewidth. EOF has been traditionally studied in the case where it is applied to only one side of the laser cavity. In contrast, this work gives a generalization to the case of feedback on both sides. It is implemented using photonic components available via generic foundry platforms, thus creating a path towards devices with high technology-readiness level. Numerical results shows an improvement in performance of the double-feedback case with respect to the single-feedback case. In particularly, by appropriately selecting the phase of the feedback from both sides, a broad stability regime is discovered. This work paves the way towards low-cost, integrated and stable narrow-linewidth integrated lasers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elizabeth Warren ◽  
Josep Call

Communication, when defined as an act intended to affect the psychological state of another individual, demands the use of inference. Either the signaler, the recipient, or both must make leaps of understanding which surpass the semantic information available and draw from pragmatic clues to fully imbue and interpret meaning. While research into human communication and the evolution of language has long been comfortable with mentalistic interpretations of communicative exchanges, including rich attributions of mental state, research into animal communication has balked at theoretical models which describe mentalized cognitive mechanisms. We submit a new theoretical perspective on animal communication: the model of inferential communication. For use when existing proximate models of animal communication are not sufficient to fully explain the complex, flexible, and intentional communication documented in certain species, specifically non-human primates, we present our model as a bridge between shallower, less cognitive descriptions of communicative behavior and the perhaps otherwise inaccessible mentalistic interpretations of communication found in theoretical considerations of human language. Inferential communication is a framework that builds on existing evidence of referentiality, intentionality, and social inference in primates. It allows that they might be capable of applying social inferences to a communicative setting, which could explain some of the cognitive processes that enable the complexity and flexibility of primate communication systems. While historical models of animal communication focus on the means-ends process of behavior and apparent cognitive outcomes, inferential communication invites consideration of the mentalistic processes that must underlie those outcomes. We propose a mentalized approach to questions, investigations, and interpretations of non-human primate communication. We include an overview of both ultimate and proximate models of animal communication, which contextualize the role and utility of our inferential communication model, and provide a detailed breakdown of the possible levels of cognitive complexity which could be investigated using this framework. Finally, we present some possible applications of inferential communication in the field of non-human primate communication and highlight the role it could play in advancing progress toward an increasingly precise understanding of the cognitive capabilities of our closest living relatives.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Rahul Kumar ◽  
Amandeep Singh Sappal

Abstract Optical communication systems introduced paradigm shift in the forte of data transmission at higher speeds and over longer distances where, on contrary electrical transmission systems failed due to higher amplitude degradation, interferences and lower bandwidths. However, pulse width increase (PWI) in the optical fiber limits the overall distance reach and also introduces more bit errors which needs to addressed. So far, pulse width shortening fibers (PFs) and fiber Bragg grating (FG) used individually in most of the reported studies, however pulse width shortening (PWS) took either high cost (in PFs) or lower PWS efficiency (PWSE) (in FG). Therefore, in this research manuscript, we made emphasis on the combined PWS effects of diverse techniques such as optical phase conjugation (OC), FG and PFs in ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. Total link length of 400 km has been covered in 128 channels ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) system at 10 Gbps by incorporating diverse combined organized placements of FG, OC and PFs such as FG-PF, OC-PF and FG-PF-OC. Results revealed that economical and maximum PWSE arrangement for proposed system is FG-PF-OC.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 612
Răzvan-George Bărtuşică ◽  
Mădălin Mihai ◽  
Simona Halunga ◽  
Octavian Fratu

This paper presents a technical solution that addresses mission-critical communications by extending the radio frequency coverage area using a flexible and scalable architecture. One of the main objectives is to improve both the reaction time and the coordination between mission-critical practitioners, also called public protection and disaster relief users, that operate in emergency scenarios. Mission-critical services such as voice and data should benefit from reliable communication systems that offer high availability, prioritization and flexible architecture. In this paper, we considered Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), the mobile radio standard used for mission-critical communications, as it has been designed in this respect and is widely used by first responder organizations. Even if RF coverage is designed before network deployment and continuously updated during the lifetime of the technology, some white areas may exist and should be covered by supplementary base stations or repeaters. The model presented in this paper is an optical repeater for TETRA standard that can offer up to 52.6 dB downlink, 65.6 dB uplink gain and up to 3.71 km coverage distance in a radiating cable installation scenario. The design in not limited, as it can be extended to several different mobile radio standards using the same principle. Flexibility and scalability attributes are taken into consideration, as they can build a cost-effective deployment considering both capital and operational expenditures.

2022 ◽  
Demos Serghiou ◽  
Mohsen Khalily ◽  
Tim Brown ◽  
Rahim Tafazolli

The Terahertz (THz) band (0.1-3.0 THz) spans a great portion of the Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum that is mostly unoccupied and unregulated. It is a potential candidate for application in Sixth-Generation (6G) wireless networks as it has the capabilities of satisfying the high data rate and capacity requirements of future wireless communication systems. Profound knowledge of the propagation channel is crucial in communication systems design which nonetheless, is still at its infancy as channel modeling at THz frequencies has been mostly limited to characterizing fixed Point-to-Point (P2P) scenarios up to 300 GHz. Provided the technology matures enough and models adapt to the distinctive characteristics of the THz wave, future wireless communications systems will enable a plethora of new use cases and applications to be realized in addition to delivering higher spectral efficiencies that would ultimately enhance the Quality-of-Service (QoS) to the end user. In this paper, we provide an insight into THz channel propagation characteristics, measurement capabilities and modeling methods along with recommendations that will aid in the development of future models in the THz band. We survey the most recent and important measurement campaigns and modeling efforts found in literature based on the use cases and system requirements identified. Finally, we discuss the challenges and limitations of measurements and modeling at such high frequencies and contemplate the future research outlook toward realizing the 6G vision.

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