time capsule
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2022 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 104350
Gang Zheng ◽  
Yiming Su ◽  
Yu Diao ◽  
Yubo Zhao ◽  
Hao Chen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2114213118
Vasıf Şahoğlu ◽  
Johannes H. Sterba ◽  
Timor Katz ◽  
Ümit Çayır ◽  
Ümit Gündoğan ◽  

The Late Bronze Age Thera eruption was one of the largest natural disasters witnessed in human history. Its impact, consequences, and timing have dominated the discourse of ancient Mediterranean studies for nearly a century. Despite the eruption’s high intensity (Volcanic Explosivity Index 7; Dense Rock Equivalent of 78 to 86 km) [T. H. Druitt, F. W. McCoy, G. E. Vougioukalakis, Elements 15, 185–190 (2019)] and tsunami-generating capabilities [K. Minoura et al., Geology 28, 59–62 (2000)], few tsunami deposits are reported. In contrast, descriptions of pumice, ash, and tephra deposits are widely published. This mismatch may be an artifact of interpretive capabilities, given how rapidly tsunami sedimentology has advanced in recent years. A well-preserved volcanic ash layer and chaotic destruction horizon were identified in stratified deposits at Çeşme-Bağlararası, a western Anatolian/Aegean coastal archaeological site. To interpret these deposits, archaeological and sedimentological analysis (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy instrumental neutron activation analysis, granulometry, micropaleontology, and radiocarbon dating) were performed. According to the results, the archaeological site was hit by a series of strong tsunamis that caused damage and erosion, leaving behind a thick layer of debris, distinguishable by its physical, biological, and chemical signature. An articulated human and dog skeleton discovered within the tsunami debris are in situ victims related to the Late Bronze Age Thera eruption event. Calibrated radiocarbon ages from well-constrained, short-lived organics from within the tsunami deposit constrain the event to no earlier than 1612 BCE. The deposit provides a time capsule that demonstrates the nature, enormity, and expansive geographic extent of this catastrophic event.

2021 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 5-8
Natalie Alvarez ◽  
Heather Davis-Fisch ◽  
Barry Freeman

2021 ◽  
Vol 156 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S19-S20
Abdulrahman Saadalla ◽  
Brooke Stroup ◽  
Bijal Parikh

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has exposed clinical laboratories to unprecedented challenges. With surging case numbers, clinical laboratories were forced to acquiesce and integrate multiple testing platforms with varying workflows and analytical sensitivities in order to meet testing volumes. Now a new challenge has emerged with the evolution of viral variants, both globally and locally, raising concerns for uncontrolled spread, increased disease severity, and weakened responses to vaccinations. Preliminary data suggests that these variants may be associated with higher viral titers and prolonged infections. While primarily leveraged for epidemiologic surveillance, the clinical utility of variant detection may quickly become paramount. Furthermore, laboratories must remain vigilant and nimble enough to pivot should variant identification play a role in the patient care. To prepare for the validation of clinical assays that identify important viral variants, we designed a novel method, termed VariantDirect, to screen SARS-CoV-2 positive samples for the presence of variants, focusing initially on the increasingly prevalent UK and South African (SA) variants. The detection strategy is based on primers designed to specifically target the viral receptor-binding domain mutation, N501Y, shared by the UK and SA strains. Screening for variants will be limited to nasopharyngeal swab samples of high viral titers (Ct values <25 by RT-qPCR assay, Roche Diagnostics). Pools of 9 different samples, 50 µl each, are mixed and stored at -80°C along with aliquots of the 9 original samples. These pools will then be tested, and if positive for the N501Y variant, the pooled 9 samples will be thawed and tested separately to identify the affected specimen. Most of these specimens are also being independently sequenced via a comprehensive but more resource-intensive NGS approach. Advantages of our pooled workflow are primarily in time and cost, with the capacity of screening up to 837 specimens on a single run. In addition, our collection strategy establishes a “time capsule” to document the evolution of viral strains within our geographical region. Finally, these studies serve to optimize technical parameters for the development of clinical assays. A validated nucleic acid (NA) extraction-free RT-qPCR method will be utilized for this assay. Our internal validation data showed comparable analytical sensitivities to NA extraction-based methods. Pooled samples in transport medium are diluted in normal saline at a ratio of 1:1, and then heat-inactivated in the presence of proteinase-K and ultimately analyzed on the Applied Biosystems™ 7500 Fast Dx instrument. As new variants of interest emerge, primers and probes can be quickly redesigned and validated on clinical samples within our NGS-confirmed “time capsule”. This study will provide important information needed for current or future genomic and epidemiologic studies.

Anna Glarin

The Coronavirus Time Capsule features the voices and experiences of over 3,000 teenagers from all over the world. Through weekly themes young people from youth theaters and youth organisations film themselves and their lives, documenting the trials and tribulations of life in lockdown. All material is edited and presented on Company Three’s website, alongside a Best Bits compilation video. This review considers the context in which this piece of performance art was created; during a global pandemic in which the voices of young people are rarely heard. As the title of the project suggests, its aim was to create a way, i.e., a time capsule, for teenagers to record and remind themselves about how and what they felt during the pandemic in years to come. However, this review argues the potential wider impact a virtual project of this scale can have and what we as theater-makers can learn from it.

2021 ◽  
pp. 105-107
N.V. Pashkova ◽  

Discussed is influence of global processes on development of the individual and society involved in the new world created by modern technologies. This world was supposed to become a “paradise” for everyone living on Earth, but every year humanity's anxiety about its near future is felt, the number of local conflicts and social protests is increasing. Traditional values today are becoming an archaic monument, they are replaced by new ones. They blur the boundaries and, in fact, disorient the modern person, which causes the problem of identification of the individual and society in the context of global integration. Each of us is like a drowning man, for whom a raft (embodying fundamental values) is the only salvation, but its absence in the raging sea of information and many subcultures does not leave the hope that, sooner or later, the person in distress will again find a quiet and peaceful life. As a person (“I”) to “find oneself”, not allowing to replace «my» with “ alien”, and society (“We”) to become free, thanks to the preservation of its cultural and historical space, while not losing unity with the global world? We present our own vision of this issue, relying on futuristic models created by philosophers of the 20th century as a symbolic “time capsule” for future generations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
pp. 528-548
Ghada Almashaqbeh ◽  
Fabrice Benhamouda ◽  
Seungwook Han ◽  
Daniel Jaroslawicz ◽  
Tal Malkin ◽  

Abstract Existing models for non-interactive MPC cannot provide full privacy for inputs, because they inherently leak the residual function (i.e., the output of the function on the honest parties’ input together with all possible values of the adversarial inputs). For example, in any non-interactive sealed-bid auction, the last bidder can figure out what was the highest previous bid. We present a new MPC model which avoids this privacy leak. To achieve this, we utilize a blockchain in a novel way, incorporating smart contracts and arbitrary parties that can be incentivized to perform computation (“bounty hunters,” akin to miners). Security is maintained under a monetary assumption about the parties: an honest party can temporarily supply a recoverable collateral of value higher than the computational cost an adversary can expend. We thus construct non-interactive MPC protocols with strong security guarantees (full security, no residual leakage) in the short term. Over time, as the adversary can invest more and more computational resources, the security guarantee decays. Thus, our model, which we call Gage MPC, is suitable for secure computation with limited-time secrecy, such as auctions. A key ingredient in our protocols is a primitive we call “Gage Time Capsules” (GaTC): a time capsule that allows a party to commit to a value that others are able to reveal but only at a designated computational cost. A GaTC allows a party to commit to a value together with a monetary collateral. If the original party properly opens the GaTC, it can recover the collateral. Otherwise, the collateral is used to incentivize bounty hunters to open the GaTC. This primitive is used to ensure completion of Gage MPC protocols on the desired inputs. As a requisite tool (of independent interest), we present a generalization of garbled circuit that are more robust: they can tolerate exposure of extra input labels. This is in contrast to Yao’s garbled circuits, whose secrecy breaks down if even a single extra label is exposed. Finally, we present a proof-of-concept implementation of a special case of our construction, yielding an auction functionality over an Ethereum-like blockchain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
Johan Lundqvist ◽  
Kenneth M. Persson ◽  
Agneta Oskarsson

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

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