Drinking Water
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2022 ◽  
Vol 168 ◽  
pp. 105372
Wanghong Su ◽  
Tongtong Li ◽  
Qiaoling Yu ◽  
Tianshu Feng ◽  
Jiawei Yang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Charlotte R. Doran ◽  
Ann Aschengrau

Abstract Background Communities in Cape Cod, Massachusetts were exposed to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through contaminated drinking water from 1969 to 1983. PCE exposure during adulthood has well-established neurotoxic effects; however, long-term impacts stemming from early life exposure, especially adverse effects on sleep quality, are not well understood. Methods The present analysis was based on data from the Cape Cod Health Study, a retrospective cohort study of the long-term neurotoxic impacts of early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. Exposure to PCE-contaminated water was estimated using a validated leaching and transport model. Measures of sleep quality were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to generate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals to estimate the association between early-life PCE exposure and sleep quality among 604 participants. Results Compared to unexposed participants, any PCE exposure during early life was associated with 1.57 times the risk of reporting breathing pauses during sleep (95% CI 0.92–2.68). Low-level exposure to PCE was associated with 1.50 times the risk of reporting sleep apnea or other sleep disorders (95% CI 0.78–2.89), while high levels of exposure had comparable risk compared to no exposure (RR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.50–1.79). Weak or no associations were observed for other sleep quality outcomes. In stratified analyses participants with mental illness and/or substance use disorder had increased risk ratios for short sleep duration associated with PCE exposure. Conclusion These findings suggest that early-life exposure to PCE may be associated with a moderate increase in the risk of reporting breathing pauses during sleep in adulthood and that a history of mental illness and/or substance use disorder may exacerbate the risk of short sleep duration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Wenxin Lu ◽  
Ronnie Levin ◽  
Joel Schwartz

Abstract Background Public drinking water can be an important source exposure to lead, which can affect children’s cognitive development and academic performance. Few studies have looked at the impact of lead exposures from community water supplies or their impact on school achievements. We examined the association between annual community water lead levels (WLLs) and children’s academic performances at the school district level. Methods We matched the 90th percentile WLLs with the grade 3–8 standardized test scores from the Stanford Education Data Archive on Geographic School Districts by geographic location and year. We used multivariate linear regression and adjusted for urbanicity, race, socioeconomic characteristics, school district, grade, and year. We also explored potential effect measure modifications and lag effects. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, a 5 μg/L increase in 90th percentile WLLs in a GSD was associated with a 0.00684 [0.00021, 0.01348] standard deviation decrease in the average math test score in the same year. No association was found for English Language Arts. Conclusions We found an association between the annual fluctuation of WLLs and math test scores in Massachusetts school districts, after adjusting for confounding by urbanicity, race, socioeconomic factors, school district, grade, and year. The implications of a detectable effect of WLLs on academic performance even at the modest levels evident in MA are significant and timely. Persistent efforts should be made to further reduce lead in drinking water.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Kebebe Bidira ◽  
Dessalegn Tamiru ◽  
Tefera Belachew

Abstract Background Under-nutrition is a global problem and one of the most serious public health issues. Globally, 156 million under-five children were stunted, and 50 million were wasted in 2016. Malnutrition among preschool-age children is caused by low socioeconomic status, food insecurity, poor feeding practices, and infectious diseases. This intervention aimed to evaluate the effect of nutrition education delivered through trained health professionals in improving the nutritional status of preschool -aged children. Methods A quasi-experimental design among 588 preschool –aged children was used. A multistage sampling technique followed by a systematic random sampling technique was used to identify caregivers with preschool-aged children. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. The baseline difference in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between the two groups was examined using a chi-square test and an independent sample t-test was used to determine the mean difference in under-nutrition between the intervention and control groups. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the change in the difference in outcome between the intervention and control groups as well as the association of predictors with under-nutrition in children. The Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals was reported to show the strength of the association. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant in multivariable analysis. Results In this study, the nutritional status of preschool age children was significantly associated with nutrition education intervention [AOR = 0.566, 95% CI: (0.347, 0.923)], place of delivery [AOR = 0.724, 95% CI: (0.551, 0.951)], ARI in the last 2 weeks [AOR = 1.823, 95% CI: (1.226, 2.710)], source of drinking water [AOR = 0.624, 95% CI: (0.484, 0.805)] and household food security [AOR = 1.311, 95% CI: (1.030, 1.669)] . Conclusions Findings of this study showed that nutrition education can effectively reduce the magnitude of under-nutrition among preschool children. Under-nutrition was e significantly associated with nutritional education, place of delivery, ARI in the last 2 weeks, source of drinking water, and food security. Therefore, both government and non-government should consider the impacts of nutrition education to alleviate under-nutrition and improve the health status of preschool-age children.

2022 ◽  
Marius Møller Rokstad ◽  
Karel Antonie van Laarhoven

Abstract. Drinking water distribution networks form an essential part of modern-day critical infrastructure. Sectorizing a network into district metered areas is a key technique for pressure management and water loss reduction. Sectorizing an existing network from scratch is, however, an exceedingly complex design task that designs in a well-studied general mathematical problem. Numerical optimization techniques such as evolutionary algorithms can be used to search for near-optimal solutions to such problems, but doing so within a reasonable timeframe remains an ongoing challenge. In this work, we introduce two heuristic tricks that use information of the network structure and information of the operational requirements of the drinking water distribution network to modify the basic evolutionary algorithm used to solve the general problem. These techniques not only reduce the time required to find good solutions, but also ensure that these solutions better match the requirements of drinking water practice. Both techniques were demonstrated by applying them in the sectorization of the actual distribution network of a large city.

2022 ◽  
José Iván Morales Arredondo ◽  
Armienta Hernández ◽  
I.Z. Flores-Ocampo ◽  
R. Flores-Vargas

Abstract Chronic exposure from drinking water with naturally high concentrations of fluoride (F⁻) has serious health consequences in several regions across the world including north-central Mexico as Guanajuato State, where the rural population is particularly dependent on untreated groundwater pumped from wells that have natural F- concentrations higher than those allowed by national and international regulations. The contaminated aquifers in the area are usually located in fractured volcanic environment that interacts with sedimentary basins and have a carbonate basement. Few studies focused on identifying the origin and hydrogeochemical processes related to fluoride release and mobilization have been developed, and even fewer that quantify the natural content of F in the geological environment. In this study, an evaluation of fluoride in volcanic rocks collected from 11 sampling sites along the Sierra de Codornices (Guanajuato State, Central Mexico) was carried out. The fluoride content is disseminated in volcanic rocks and the highest contents were obtained in felsic rocks. According to results obtained of a sampling campaign of 32 wells in 2019 their statistical and hydrogeochemical evaluation suggest that F- mobilization in groundwater from Juventino Rosas and Villagran municipalities, is a product of volcanic glass dissolution, a process involved in alkaline desorption occurring on the surfaces of F-containing minerals, and possibly on ion exchange occurring in minerals and some clays or even in deep fluids enriched in F. All these processes may be accelerated by the geothermal characteristics of the groundwater in the study area. The hydrogeochemical results and the epidemiological survey conducted indicate that children and older adults of Praderas de la Venta are at risk of exposure to F- due to the high concentrations ingested over a long period of time, to the toxicity of the element and its ability to accumulate in the bones. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations increases the risk.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 224
Zhiling Zhao ◽  
Yongji Zhang ◽  
Lu Wang ◽  
Wenhang Shi

Microorganism rebreeding and biofilm shedding enter the water body in the process of a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), which poses a threat to public health. Particles in water can gather pollutants as well as providing favorable growth conditions for bacteria. To date, there are a few studies which focus on the relationship between particles and biofilm formation. Therefore, the microbial diversity of biofilms in the different pipe materials and the effect on particle concentration on biofilm formation were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out under a simulative DWDS (including iron (DI) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe). The results showed that the microbial diversity in biofilms followed this order: DI pipe > PVC pipe > DI pipe (upper). Moreover, the microbial biomass of biofilm and the fluorescence intensity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, produced by microorganisms) were the largest in the absence of particles. The amount of biofilm bacterial and the fluorescence intensity of EPS both showed first an increasing and then decreasing trend with particle concentration increasing. When particle concentration was relatively low, the absorption of particles and bacteria played a major role, however, with the increasing particle concentration, more stable particle–particle were formed and thus, EPS was easily extracted, resulting in the increase of fluorescence intensity of EPS.

Nathalie Guigues ◽  
Julien Chabrol ◽  
Pierre Lavaud ◽  
Sandrine Raveau ◽  
Jérémie Magar ◽  

Daniel Enrique Kelly-Coto ◽  
Alejandra Gamboa-Jiménez ◽  
Diana Mora-Campos ◽  
Pablo Salas-Jiménez ◽  
Basilio Silva-Narváez ◽  

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