Epistemic Stance
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Multilingua ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Stina Ericsson ◽  
Dima Bitar ◽  
Tommaso Milani

Abstract This article concerns knowledge negotiations as an aspect of interactional power in three-way interaction between Arabic-speaking women, Swedish-speaking midwives and interpreters in Swedish antenatal care. The notion of epistemic stance is used to investigate how all three participants negotiate knowledge, and how this affects the ongoing consultation. The data consist of audio recordings of 33 consultations, involving five midwives. Using an interaction analytical approach, the study focuses on sequences where the pregnant woman makes her voice heard, possibly challenging the midwife or the Swedish antenatal care programme. Three different ways in which the epistemic stances of the participants unfold interactionally are analysed: (1) the midwife and the pregnant woman mutually adjusting their knowledge claims, (2) the pregnant woman unsuccessfully attempting to claim knowledge and (3) participants jointly asserting the midwife’s knowledge. Importantly, all three participants wield their interactional power through various ways of negotiating knowledge, which contrasts with the idea of the interpreter as fully neutral and detached. The knowledge claims of the pregnant women and the midwives in the data are also shown to be highly dependent on the interpreters’ competence and performance.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. e0250264
Author(s):  
Chloe Campbell ◽  
Michal Tanzer ◽  
Rob Saunders ◽  
Thomas Booker ◽  
Elizabeth Allison ◽  
...  

Epistemic trust (ET) refers to trust in communicated knowledge. This paper describes the development and validation of a new self-report questionnaire, the Epistemic Trust, Mistrust and Credulity Questionnaire (ETMCQ). We report on two studies (Study 1, n = 500; Study 2, n = 705) examining the psychometric properties of the ETMCQ and the relationship between EMTCQ scores (i.e., an individual’s epistemic stance) and exposure to adverse childhood experiences, mental health symptoms, attachment, mentalizing and general self-efficacy. The factor structure of the ETMCQ was examined using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses, and its reliability and test-retest reliability were tested. Both studies yielded three correlated yet distinct factors–Trust, Mistrust and Credulity–and confirmed the reliability and validity of the ETMCQ. Preregistered hypotheses were confirmed and replicated across both studies. Main findings suggest intriguing links between the ETMCQ and developmental psychopathology constructs and are consistent with thinking on the role of epistemic stance in undermining adaptation and increasing the developmental risk of mental health problems. Mistrust and Credulity scores were associated with childhood adversity and higher scores on the global psychopathology severity index and both factors partially mediated the link between early adversity and mental health symptoms. Mistrust and Credulity were positively associated with difficulties in understanding mental states and insecure attachment styles. Post-hoc analysis identified that different attachment styles were associated with differences in epistemic stance. In addition, Trust was not associated with reduced levels of mental health symptoms and did not moderate the impact of childhood adversity–findings are congruent with the suggestion that the reduction of mistrust and credulity may be crucial common factors in promoting resilience and the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions. This investigation and the ETMCQ provide an empirical measure of what until now has been largely a theoretical concept and open new avenues for future research.


Author(s):  
Yuri Hosoda ◽  
David Aline

Abstract This conversation analytic study explicates the differential actions of the English phrase I don’t know (IDK) and its equivalent in Japanese, wakannai, as deployed by Japanese learners of English during peer discussions for language learning. By examining natural classroom interaction, we explore second language (L2) speakers’ use of these tokens for various pragmatic actions. The data consist of 47 h of discussions in English language classes in three Japanese universities. The discussions were carried out in the target language, English, for the most part, but occasionally the participants used their common first language (L1), Japanese. All cases of IDK and wakannai examined here occurred in first positions during production of opinions or first assessments. The analysis revealed that within a single discussion session, the participants marshalled IDK and wakannai to perform differential actions. Overwhelmingly, in our data, IDK was deployed to manage their epistemic stance, while wakannai was produced to make a public assertion of their insufficient knowledge.


Author(s):  
Yan Yue ◽  
Canzhong Wu

Abstract This article is a contrastive study of epistemic stance in the English translations of the Chinese medical classic Huang Di Nei Jing by clinicians and non-clinicians. Epistemic stance is concerned with a translator’s certainty about the proposition of a statement and is highly consequential to information validity. By drawing on the systemic functional linguistic framework and using two sets of translations of the Chinese medicine classic, Huang Di Nei Jing, by both clinicians and non-clinicians, the study investigates the linguistic choices concerning epistemic stance. The findings show that epistemic stance is closely related to the translators’ domain knowledge and expertise, with clinician-translators more likely to express their epistemic stance in the translations. However, this study also finds a counterintuitive epistemic pattern: non-clinician translators express more certainty in their translations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rémi A. van Compernolle

Drawing on conversation analysis and its extension to classroom discourse studies, this article examines the ways in which topic is managed and opportunities for learning are created in an advanced US university-level Francophone Cultures class. In the analysis, topic is treated as an ongoing interactional achievement rather than a stable “subject” of conversation. A single-case analysis is presented to show how topic is accomplished between the teacher and her students in relation to preference organization and epistemic stance. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates how a prototypical three-turn Initiation-Response-Feedback (IRF) sequence is elaborated over multiple turns that expand the teacher’s explicitly announced topic to include a side sequence addressing a metalinguistic problem and a disagreement between two students that results in an expansion of the topic beyond the teacher’s agenda. In the discussion, the results are synthesized in relation to how opportunities for learning emerge in the comanagement of topics. Implications for research and pedagogy are also offered.


2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
pp. 39-59
Author(s):  
John Heritage ◽  
Chase Wesley Raymond
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