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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 361
Yannick Razafindratsima ◽  
Andrimampionona Razakandrainy ◽  
Sonia Fortin ◽  
Charlotte Ralison ◽  
Claire Mouquet-Rivier

Undernutrition is highly prevalent in young children in Madagascar and insufficient intake per meal could be one of the main causes. A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices including video-recorded meal observations was carried out with 101 caregiver–infant pairs in the Amparafaravola district, Northeast Madagascar. The objective was to quantify the porridge/energy intake of 9–11-month-old children and assess its association with the caregiver–infant feeding behaviours. Then, key messages for promoting responsive feeding (RF) were developed and tested through focus group discussions. The mean porridge intake was 12.8 ± 7.5 g/kg body weight (BW)/meal, corresponding to hardly one-third of the 300 kcal recommended from complementary foods for 9–11-month-old children. Analysis of meal videos suggested that mothers practiced the five positive feeding behaviours (self-feeding, responsive, active, social, and distraction), and rarely the negative ones. Only 6.9% of mothers used positive RF “very frequently”, although it was associated with higher intakes (p < 0.05), with mean intake reaching 21 g/kg BW. In focus groups, caregivers approved the six RF messages and related counselling cards. They suggested some modifications to improve their understanding, and counselling cards were revised accordingly. The long-term impact of RF-promoting card use on the meal intakes and the nutritional status of young children must now be assessed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Samiha Samrose ◽  
Ehsan Hoque

Since online discussion platforms can limit the perception of social cues, effective collaboration over videochat requires additional attention to conversational skills. However, self-affirmation and defensive bias theories indicate that feedback may appear confrontational, especially when users are not motivated to incorporate them. We develop a feedback chatbot that employs Motivational Interviewing (MI), a directive counseling method that encourages commitment to behavior change, with the end goal of improving the user's conversational skills. We conduct a within-subject study with 21 participants in 8 teams to evaluate our MI-agent 'MIA' and a non-MI-agent 'Roboto'. After interacting with an agent, participants are tasked with conversing over videochat to evaluate candidate résumés for a job circular. Our quantitative evaluation shows that the MI-agent effectively motivates users, improves their conversational skills, and is likable. Through a qualitative lens, we present the strategies and the cautions needed to fulfill individual and team goals during group discussions. Our findings reveal the potential of the MI technique to improve collaboration and provide examples of conversational tactics important for optimal discussion outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 51
Maria Matsiola ◽  
Panagiotis Spiliopoulos ◽  
Nikolaos Tsigilis

The present generation of young people who nowadays attend higher education curricula are accustomed to receiving information and knowledge through audiovisual material. Creating a digital story can assist students to learn more on the subject they study as well as to help them overcome obstacles that hinder the presentation of their gained knowledge. The aim of this paper was to examine the use of audiovisual tools in the educational procedure of sport journalism higher education courses. Thirty-eight students in the School of Journalism at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki were asked to present a team sport in a video form. Following the general instructions from the teachers they were able to use any kind of equipment and software they chose to create the audiovisual production. Upon the completion of the projects and based on an embedded mixed research design they were asked to answer a short questionnaire and afterwards to participate in two focus group discussions. The results revealed that the employment of technological tools to create, present, and furthermore express themselves was warmly accepted and the participants stated that it provided a vivid educational environment, which besides enhancing the process of teaching, contributed to the acquisition of skills and their right utilization.

10.2196/25863 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e25863
Antonia Hyman ◽  
Elizabeth Stacy ◽  
Humaira Mohsin ◽  
Kaitlin Atkinson ◽  
Kurtis Stewart ◽  

Background South Asian community members in Canada experience a higher burden of chronic disease than the general population. Digital health innovations provide a significant opportunity to address various health care challenges such as supporting patients in their disease self-management. However, South Asian community members are less likely to use digital tools for their health and face significant barriers in accessing them because of language or cultural factors. Objective The aim of this study is to understand the barriers to and facilitators of digital health tool uptake experienced by South Asian community members residing in Canada. Methods This study used a qualitative community-based participatory action research approach. Residents from Surrey, British Columbia, Canada, who spoke 1 of 4 South Asian languages (Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, or Tamil) were invited to participate in focus group discussions. A subsample of the participants were invited to use photovoice methods in greater depth to explore the research topics. Results A total of 197 participants consented to the focus group discussions, with 12 (6.1%) participating in the photovoice phase. The findings revealed several key obstacles (older age, lack of education, and poor digital health literacy) and facilitators (social support from family or community members and positive attitudes toward technology) to using digital health tools. Conclusions The results support the value of using a community-based participatory action research approach and photovoice methods to engage the South Asian community in Canada to better understand digital health competencies and needs. There were several important implications for policy makers and future research, such as continued engagement of community leaders by health care providers and administrators to learn about attitudes and preferences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. e0000035
Ahmad Junaedi ◽  
Ken Ing Cherng Ong ◽  
Fauzan Rachmatullah ◽  
Akira Shibanuma ◽  
Junko Kiriya ◽  

The spreading of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is growing out of control in Indonesia since the first two confirmed cases were announced in March 2020. Physical distancing measures are key to slowing down COVID-19 transmission. This study investigated factors associated with physical distancing compliance among young adults in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia. A convergent photovoice mixed methods design was used. Quantitatively, using data from 330 young adults in Jakarta Metropolitan Area, Indonesia, physical distancing compliance scores and its associated factors were analyzed with hierarchical linear regression. Responses from 18 young adults in online focus group discussions and 29 young adults in photovoice were analyzed with thematic analysis. Then, the findings were integrated using joint displays. The mean compliance score of young adults was 23.2 out of 27.0. The physical distancing compliance score was higher among those who worked or studied from home (β = 0.14, p <0.05), compared with those who resumed work at an office or study at school. Celebrating religious days (β = −0.15, p <0.05) and having hometown in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (β = −0.12, p <0.05) were negatively associated with higher physical distancing compliance scores. Joint displays expanded the reasons for workplace policy, awareness, and social pressure as facilitators and barriers to compliance. Young adults’ physical distancing compliance scores were high, but they are at risk of not complying due to religious events and changes in workplace policies. Beyond individual efforts, external factors, such as workplace policies and social pressure, play a major role to influence their physical distancing compliance.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 185
Sharon Sweeney ◽  
Áine Regan ◽  
Claire McKernan ◽  
Tony Benson ◽  
Alison Hanlon ◽  

There has been increased public interest and concerns in issues such as farm animal welfare (FAW) on the island of Ireland, stoked in part by political and governance changes, such as Brexit and COVID-19. Front-of-pack food labelling represents a primary information channel for many people. In advance of considering formalised food labelling schemes, specifically relating to FAW, it is important to ensure an up-to-date understanding of current consumer perceptions of FAW. With this aim, the current study utilised a mixed methodology. Nine focus group discussions (n = 41) and an online survey (n = 972) with food consumers in Ireland and Northern Ireland explored perceptions of FAW. Results suggest that overall perceptions of FAW are high, and consumers perceive FAW to have improved in the last decade. Quantitative (ANOVA) and qualitative results show variations in perception of FAW between sectors. Results from the focus group discussions identified factors underlying consumers’ perception of FAW: the living conditions of the animal, size and intensity of the farm, national standards and schemes, and visibility. Information insufficiencies and knowledge gaps were identified. The findings are discussed in relation to policy implications for the role of public engagement, front-of-pack welfare labelling, and quality assurance schemes.

The transgender community, one of the most marginalized communities, faces a range of discriminatory issues in workplaces and educational institutions. The study seeks to investigate the extent of organizational support ensured by the workplaces to create a transgender-friendly environment in Bangladesh. The paper opted for a mixed study and surveyed 47 trans workers using a questionnaire. The responses yielded quantitative data that was analyzed using SPSS. The qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions with seven respondents. The study findings showed that the discrimination and exclusion experience is negative for trans workers of Bangladeshi organizations and educational institutions. While most of the respondents felt primarily excluded in the formal setting, they feel that they have been intentionally left out when they meet their coworkers in informal or social gatherings. The outcomes of the discrimination involved forced termination and absenteeism on the ground of their non-binary gender identity. It was also found that many Bangladeshi organizations still do not want trans workers to represent them. To the best of researchers’ understanding, the past research on the transgender community’s diversity and inclusion experience in organizations is rarely covered from the developing country’s perspective. This paper attempts to fulfill the study gap. Recommendations for good practices to ensure diversity is proposed to companies. Creating a more inclusive workplace is expected to create a robust economic and social impact for developing countries like Bangladesh. Keywords: Bangladesh, Discrimination, Diversity, Inclusion, Trans workers, Trans-friendly environment, Organizations

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 49-57
Thobekani Lose ◽  
Sebenzile Khuzwayo

This study aimed to explore the attitudes of students of a higher education institution towards infopreneurship. The study emanated from observations that the widespread use of information technologies has created a new sector in the labor market – infopreneurship. The study adopted the case study research design based on focus group discussions to establish the students’ attitudes towards infopreneurship. The participants for the focus groups were students of the Information Science department at the University of Technology, Cape Town. Data collection during the focus group discussions was based on unstructured interviews. Quantitative data analysis was applied based on data reduction from codes to categories. An enterprising attitude (26.4% code frequency) dominated the positive responses while negative attitudes were mainly reflected by a critical attitude (20.8% code frequency) towards infopreneurship. While it appeared that positive attitudes were more prevalent than negative attitudes, there were notable observations that the respondents were critical or neutral towards the essence of infopreneurship in the South African context. It was found that the belief that infopreneurship is not a viable form of employment was still prevalent. Some respondents believed that employment means working for someone. They felt that there is greater respect in being employed than engaging in infopreneurship. Some respondents, however, appear to have stronger entrepreneurial orientations and felt that infopreneurship offers the best employment opportunities. The study recommends changes in higher education curricula and the creation of a stimulating environment for infopreneurship.

Mehjabeen Musharraf ◽  
Ambreen Aslam ◽  
Lubna Baig

Objectives: To explore the role of media during mass casualty events and its impact on the people. Method: The qualitative thematic content analysis was conducted at Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, from 2028 to 2020 and comprised semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving participants from the health sector and policymakers at the provincial level. Besides, frontline workers such as the ambulance drivers and the first-aid-givers were also included. Data was subjected to conventional content analysis to generate themes. Results: There were 5 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions in the study. Qualitative analysis revealed that the media has a great deal to do in times of a disaster. The media is the strongest weapon and largely impacts people's mind and behaviour, but it has been playing with their emotions and creating unrest among them. Conclusion: There is a need for the policymakers to set guidelines and define the role of the media in times of a disaster. Key Words: Mass casualty, Media, Catastrophe.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
Lucy Afeafa Ry-Kottoh ◽  
Lucy Afeafa Ry-Kottoh ◽  
Samuel Smith Esseh ◽  
Adolph Hilary Agbo

Equal access to books and other educational materials presents equal opportunities for all to acquire education, develop skills, and realise their full potential. Drawing on data gathered through focus group discussions and interviews, our study discusses access and use of books in braille by the print-disabled in special schools/education in Ghana. The study found the supply and access to books in braille by students and teachers inadequate to support teaching and learning, mainly due to the challenges with production. Given the poor access teachers and students have to publications in braille, we argue that audiobooks be adopted as a supplementary reading format for the print-disabled in Ghana so they can have access to equal educational opportunities as their non-disabled colleagues.

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