Language Use
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2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 185
Junko Toyoda ◽  
Tomoko Yashima ◽  
Scott Aubrey

Many studies have investigated the situational nature of Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in language learning. However, few studies have explored the possibility that a language teaching approach aimed at fostering communicative language use can effectively influence and thus facilitate L2 WTC development as it emerges in context (situational WTC). This classroom-based study addresses this issue by (a) investigating whether task-based learning (TBL) can foster situational L2 WTC for novice learners of English as a foreign language (EFL), and (b) determining the factors that influence learners’ situational WTC through a mixed-methods approach juxtaposing quantitative and qualitative data. The study focused on Japanese junior high school students (N=135) participating in a four-month exposure to TBL. The findings revealed that, during the TBL period, learners’ L2 WTC improved significantly and that learners reported feelings of enjoyment when participating in authentic L2 social interaction. 第二言語学習におけるsituational willingness to communicate (L2 WTC: 状況ごとに変化する外国語を話す意思)について多くの研究がされてきた。しかしながら、コミュニケーション能力促進のための特定の教授法を用いて、どのようにL2 WTCが出現し変化していくのかを調査した研究例は少ない。本研究では,質的量的研究の両方を使う混合研究法を用いて、(a)タスク中心学習における参加者のsituational L2 WTCは変化するのか、(b)どのような要因が初級EFL学習者のsituational L2 WTCに影響を与えるのか、を調査した。中学生135名を対象として4か月間タスク中心学習によるコミュニケーション活動を行った。結果から、参加者のsituational L2 WTC は有意に伸長した。また英語で友達とソーシャルインタラクションを楽しむことで、タスクへの参加意欲ならびに英語使用の頻度が高まったことが明らかとなった。 Keywords: EFL novice learners; perceived situational task competence; situational Willingness to Communicate; task-based learning

2021 ◽  
Gregg Anthony Castellucci ◽  
Frank H H Guenther ◽  
Michael A. Long

Vocal interaction is an important feature of social behavior across species, however the relation between vocal communication in humans and nonhumans remains unclear. To enable comparative investigations of this topic, we review the literature pertinent to interactive language use and identify the superset of cognitive operations involved in generating communicative behavior. We posit these functions to comprise three multistep pathways: (1) the Content Pathway, which selects the movements constituting a response, (2) the Timing Pathway, which temporally structures responses, and (3) the Affect Pathway, which modulates response parameters as a function of internal state. These processing streams form the basis of the Convergent Pathways for Interaction (CPI) Framework, which can be used to contextualize communicative behaviors across species by identifying specific behavioral and cognitive analogues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 61-98
Geoffrey Ungaya ◽  
Hellen Mberia ◽  
Kyalo Wa Ngula ◽  
William Sigilai ◽  
Saira Sokwalla

Purpose: To establish the effect of healthcare provider patient verbal language use on diabetes mellitus management practices in selected hospital in Kenya. Methodology: This was a causal comparative research study design with application of quantitative and qualitative methodology. The study was carried out at the outpatient diabetic clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital and MP Shah Hospital. 400 patient participants were involved in the study and comprised of 313 patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and 87 patients at MP Shah respectively studied between the months of February 2019 and November 2019. A researcher administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The results were summarized using percentages and means or medians for categorical and continuous data respectively. Comparisons were done using chi square test of association of categorical variables and independent t-test for comparison of means. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to test for associations and hypothesis between healthcare provider patient verbal language use (VLU) and diabetes mellitus management practices (DMMPs). Results: Patients at MP Shah Hospital rated the verbal language use significantly higher than the patients at KNH (p< 0.001). However, linear regression analysis showed that verbal language use was not statistically significant overall in Kenya [β=0.04, (95% CI -0.09, 0.17), p=0.552], at KNH [β=0.05, (95% CI -0.10, 0.19), p=0.513] and MP Shah Hospital [β=0.09, (95% CI -0.21, 0.39), p=0.552]; (P > 0.05), hence the failure to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, there was no significant effect of verbal language use by the healthcare provider and the patient on diabetes mellitus management practices in selected hospitals Kenya. Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: Verbal language use though important in healthcare provider patient interactions was not responsible for improvement in the diabetes mellitus management practices among the patients. Therefore, verbal language use by the healthcare providers in their communication interaction with patients need to be reinforced in healthcare practice to ensure improved DMMPs. Strategies should be developed to enhance verbal language use through educational curriculum development and implementation at the medical training institutions.

Aaron Mann ◽  
Angela de Bruin

Charles Feghabo ◽  
Blessing Omoregie

Language use is central to Tanure Ojaide’s The Activist, negotiating a better living environment for the people of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Most literary essays on this text, however, overlook Ojaide’s deployment of language to achieve his subversive vision. The text has been interpreted as environmentalism colored by an ideology or artistic documentation of the despoiled ecosystem, its effects on humans, the flora and fauna of the Niger Delta, and the consequential eco-activism. Another read of the text, however, reveals a binary relationship of dominance and subversion in which language is significant to both sides of the intercourse. The existence of dominance and resistance, therefore, necessitates the analysis of the text drawing from the Subaltern theory, an aspect of the Postcolonial theory to which dominance and resistance are central. This essay examines the deployment of language as a hegemonic and subversive tool in the oil politics in the Niger Delta. The binary relationship is couched in bi-partite motifs captured in epithets and contrasting images. In the binary, the multinational oil companies operating in the Niger Delta yoked with the Nigerian military government, are juxtaposed with the people and the Niger Delta as oppressors and the oppressed. Through bipartite motifs that abound in the text, Ojaide concretizes the duality in the Nigerian society vis-a-vis the oil politics in the Niger Delta.  In the duality, language is reinvented and mobilized significantly by both sides as a tool for demonizing and excluding each other to enable the subjugation or subversion of the other.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
David Coniam ◽  
Polyxeni Poupounaki-Lappa ◽  
Tzortzina Peristeri

Abstract This paper builds on the work presented previously in this journal by Poupounaki-Lappa et al. (2021), which described the development of a communicative test of Reading and Language Use of Classical Greek calibrated to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) at levels A1 and A2 (Council of Europe, 2001). In the current paper, the two tests of Classical Greek are calibrated both together and to the CEFR. In addition to describing the methodology for comparing the two separate tests of Classical Greek, the paper is also designed to be of interest to educators of other classical languages. It is hoped that they may find it useful not only by facilitating robust test design, but also by demonstrating the methods by which tests can be linked together on a common scale (as with the CEFR) or linking tests one to another (e.g., different end-of-year tests, at different points in time).

2021 ◽  
Patrycja Kałamała ◽  
Adam Chuderski ◽  
Jakub M. Szewczyk ◽  
Magdalena Senderecka ◽  
Zofia Wodniecka

The growing importance of research on bilingualism in psychology and neuroscience motivates the need for a unified approach to understanding and quantifying this phenomenon. This study aimed to establish the first psychometric model of bilingualism. To this end, we re-analyzed two datasets (N = 171 and N = 112) from Polish-English bilinguals who completed a battery of questionnaires and tasks probing language experience. We asked whether bilingualism is best described by the factor structure (generalizable dimensions of bilingualism that are potentially explained by a higher-order construct) or by the network structure (direct and low-level dependencies between language skills and language-use practices which leads to the emergence of bilingualism).The factor and network structures were established on one dataset and then validated on the other dataset in a fully confirmatory manner. The network model provided the best fit to the data. Further network analyses showed that some indices demonstrated relatively stronger connections within the network than others. Yet, there was no central index that would explain most of the variability in bilingual experience.The results imply that bilingualism should be conceptualized as an emergent network of low-level and idiosyncratic dependencies between diverse language skills, the history of language acquisition, and language-use practices. These dependencies can be reduced to neither a single universal quotient nor to some more general factors. Overall, an indisputable advantage of the network model over the factor approach indicates the great potential of network modeling to gain a more accurate description and understanding of complex cognitive phenomena.

2021 ◽  
Daneshwar Sharma ◽  
Akash D. Dubey

2021 ◽  
Vera Ferreira ◽  
Leonore Lukschy ◽  
Buachut Watyam ◽  
Siripen Ungsitipoonpor ◽  
Mandana Seyfeddinipur

Over the last two decades there has been a surge in activists, linguists, anthropologists, documenters digitally recording endangered language use. These unique records often are uploaded to corporate social media sites or to privately run websites. Despite popular belief, uploading these materials to a server does not mean they are archived and preserved for future generations. In this paper we discuss the differences between professional archiving systems and content management system (CMS) based approaches to making language materials accessible. Looking at the example of the Archive of Languages and Cultures of Ethnic Groups of Thailand we discuss the benefits of a Mukurtu based community website, and how linking it to a professional archive can ensure long-term preservation of precious and unique language materials.

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