The automatic identification system (AIS) was introduced in the maritime domain to increase the safety of sea traffic. AIS messages are transmitted as broadcasts to nearby ships and contain, among others, information about the identification, position, speed, and course of the sending vessels. AIS can thus serve as a tool to avoid collisions and increase onboard situational awareness. In recent years, AIS has been utilized in more and more applications since it enables worldwide surveillance of virtually any larger vessel and has the potential to greatly support vessel traffic services and collision risk assessment. Anomalies in AIS tracks can indicate events that are relevant in terms of safety and also security. With a plethora of accessible AIS data nowadays, there is a growing need for the automatic detection of anomalous AIS data. In this paper, we survey 44 research articles on anomaly detection of maritime AIS tracks. We identify the tackled AIS anomaly types, assess their potential use cases, and closely examine the landscape of recent AIS anomaly research as well as their limitations.
The reuse of research software needs good documentation, however, the documentation in particular is often criticized. Especially in non-IT specific disciplines, the lack of documentation is attributed to the lack of training, the lack of time or missing rewards. This article addresses the hypothesis that scientists do document but do not know exactly what they need to document, why, and for whom. In order to evaluate the actual documentation practice of research software, we examined existing recommendations, and we evaluated their implementation in everyday practice using a concrete example from the engineering sciences and compared the findings with best practice examples. In order to get a broad overview of what documentation of research software entailed, we defined categories and used them to conduct the research. Our results show that the big picture of what documentation of research software means is missing. Recommendations do not consider the important role of developers whose documentation takes mainly place in their research articles. Moreover, we show that research software always has a history that influences the documentation.
AbstractGender parity and authorship diversity are declared goals in the publishing world. This study assessed the progress of authorship gender distribution over a quarter of a century and geographic diversity over the last 15 years in high-impact psychiatric journals. All articles published in 2019 in the American Journal of Psychiatry, the British Journal of Psychiatry, and JAMA Psychiatry were included and compared with data from three points in time starting in 1994. Descriptive statistics were gathered, and chi-square tests were performed. All tests were conducted as two-tailed, and p-values < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Inter-rater reliability was calculated via Cohen’s kappa. In 2019 a total of 473 articles were published. Forty percent of all authors, 42.3% of first authors, and 29.4% of senior authors were female. Counting original research articles only, female first authorship reached 50.4%. In the 25-year period between 1994 and 2019, female first (p < .001), female senior (p < .001), and female overall (p < .001) authorship has increased. In the specific period between 2014 and 2019, overall female senior authorship in all articles (p = .940) as well as first (p = .101) and senior (p = .157) in original research plateaued. In non-original research articles, female first authorship was higher in 2019 compared to 2014 (p = .014), whilst female senior authorship plateaued (p = .154). Geographic diversity was low and did not change over time. Gender parity in the subcategory original research articles was reached for the first time in 2019. Senior female authorship and geographic diversity remain areas of concern that need further investigation and specific interventions.
Nucleotide sequence reagents underpin molecular techniques that have been applied across hundreds of thousands of publications. We have previously reported wrongly identified nucleotide sequence reagents in human research publications and described a semi-automated screening tool Seek & Blastn to fact-check their claimed status. We applied Seek & Blastn to screen >11,700 publications across five literature corpora, including all original publications in Gene from 2007 to 2018 and all original open-access publications in Oncology Reports from 2014 to 2018. After manually checking Seek & Blastn outputs for >3,400 human research articles, we identified 712 articles across 78 journals that described at least one wrongly identified nucleotide sequence. Verifying the claimed identities of >13,700 sequences highlighted 1,535 wrongly identified sequences, most of which were claimed targeting reagents for the analysis of 365 human protein-coding genes and 120 non-coding RNAs. The 712 problematic articles have received >17,000 citations, including citations by human clinical trials. Given our estimate that approximately one-quarter of problematic articles may misinform the future development of human therapies, urgent measures are required to address unreliable gene research articles.
Drones or unoccupied aerial vehicles are rapidly being used for a spectrum of applications, including replacing traditional occupied aircraft as a means of approaching wildlife from the air. Though less intrusive to wildlife than occupied aircraft, drones can still cause varying levels of disturbance. Policies and protocols to guide lowest-impact drone flights are most likely to succeed if considerations are derived from knowledge from scientific literature. This study examines trends in the scientific literature on using drones to approach wildlife between 2000 and 2020, specifically in relation to the type of publications, scientific journals works are published in, the purposes of drone flights reported, taxa studied, and locations of studies. From 223 publications, we observed a large increase in relevant scientific literature, the majority of which were peer-reviewed articles published across 87 scientific journals. The largest proportions of peer-reviewed research articles related to aquatic mammals or aquatic birds, and the use or trial of drone flights for conducting population surveys, animal detection or investigations of animal responses to drone flights. The largest proportion of articles were studies conducted in North America and Australia. Since animal responses to drone flights vary between taxa, populations, and geographic locations, we encourage further growth in the volume of relevant scientific literature needed to inform policies and protocols for specific taxa and/or locations, particularly where knowledge gaps exist.
Experienced fatigue is an under-recognized and under-researched feature in persons with many different rare diseases. A better overview of the characteristics of existing research on experienced fatigue in children and adults with rare diseases is needed. The purpose of this review was to map and describe characteristics of existing research on experienced fatigue in a selection of rare diseases in rare developmental defects or anomalies during embryogenesis and rare genetic diseases. Furthermore, to identify research gaps and point to research agendas.
We applied a scoping review methodology, and performed a systematic search in March 2020 in bibliographic databases. References were sorted and evaluated for inclusion using EndNote and Rayyan. Data were extracted on the main research questions concerning characteristics of research on experienced fatigue (definition and focus on fatigue, study populations, research questions investigated and methods used).
This review included 215 articles on ten different rare developmental defects/anomalies during embryogenesis and 35 rare genetic diseases. Of the 215 articles, 82 had investigation of experienced fatigue as primary aim or outcome. Included were 9 secondary research articles (reviews) and 206 primary research articles. A minority of articles included children. There were large differences in the number of studies in different diseases. Only 29 of 215 articles gave a description of how they defined the concept of experienced fatigue. The most common research-question reported on was prevalence and/ -or associations to fatigue. The least common was diagnostics (development or validation of fatigue assessment methods for a specific patient group). A large variety of methods were used to investigate experienced fatigue, impeding comparisons both within and across diagnoses.
This scoping review on the characteristics of fatigue research in rare diseases found a large variety of research on experienced fatigue. However, the minority of studies had investigation of experienced fatigue as a primary aim. There was large variation in how experienced fatigue was defined and also in how it was measured, both within and across diagnoses. More research on experienced fatigue is needed, both in children and adults with rare diseases. This review offers a basis for further research.
The purpose of this study was to examine music education faculty members’ perceptions of the master’s degree in music education (MME). A total of 76 music teacher educators completed a researcher-designed survey instrument. Participants believed their MME students’ top four motivations for pursuing MME degrees were to become a better teacher, to gain a higher salary, to create a possible pathway to doctoral study in the future, and to gain academic stimulation through graduate level coursework. Faculty also indicated the MME degree was focused on both teaching/pedagogy and research. Participants explained that their students primarily learn about research through reading and discussing research articles in class, and that their students learn about pedagogy primarily from reading pedagogical articles and reflecting on personal teaching videos. In addition, participants presented various opinions regarding the purpose of MME degrees. Implications for music teacher educators are discussed.
The processing of the piece surfaces involves the transformation of the blank into a piece, the defining characteristics of the surfaces (the form, dimensions, deviations, etc.), depending to a large extent on the parameters of the generated processes of the surfaces. Generating surfaces by enveloping represents a complex problem, this mode of generating being a constant concern of researchers due to its advantages. A very important issue is the cutting edge profiling of the future tool, which will generate the wanted profile of the piece. Throughout time, researchers have studied the problems of enveloping surfaces and stated theorems related to them, based on which practical solutions have been conceive to determine the generating and generated surfaces form. The paper presents an overview on study methods for reciprocally enwrapping surfaces, as well as methods for profiling tools for generating helical surfaces by the kinematic method and by the method of decomposing the helical movement. This review can represent a basis for future research articles and projects.