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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 30-54
Author(s):  
Fadhila Inas Pratiwi ◽  
Irfa Puspitasari ◽  
Indah Hikmawati ◽  
Harvian Bagus

The purpose of this article is to correlate Indonesia’s global maritime fulcrum (GMF) as Indonesia’s middle power strategy to its responseto the two geopolitical strategies of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) of China and the Free andOpen Indo-Pacific (FOIP) of the Quad (the United States, India, Japan and Australia). This article used the process-tracing method to examine the information sourced from journal articles, news media outlets, government press releases and other resources. The article unfolds in four sections. The first explains the background of why the global maritime fulcrum was chosen as Indonesia’s middle power strategy response tothe BRI and FOIP. The second explains how Indonesia usesthe GMF as its middle power strategy. The third part explores how the middle power strategy through the GMF policy responds tothe BRI. The last part elaborates on Indonesia’s strategy when responding to the FOIP. It concludes that it is prevalent that Indonesia usesthe GMF as its middle power strategy when responding to the BRI and FOIP.


Author(s):  
Alexander Paul Monea

This presentation draws on data from my forthcoming book with MIT Press to demonstrate how heteronormative and cisnormative bias pervade Silicon Valley culture, get embedded in benchmark datasets and machine learning algorithms, and get formalized in company policies and labor practices surrounding content moderation. The presentation begins with an examination of workplace culture at Google, gaining insights from Department of Labor investigations, testimonials from previous employees, and informal surveys and discourse analysis conducted by employees during the circulation of James Damore's infamous 'Google memo'. The presentation then moves on to examine bias embedded in benchmark datasets like WordNet and ImageNet, both of which served as the training datasets for Google's Image Recognition algorithms (like GoogLeNet). Lastly, the presentation turns to Facebook's heteronormative and cisnormative content moderation policies and the outsourced labor practices it uses to institute what Facebook has described as 'human algorithms' to review content in accordance with these policies. Throughout the presentation I demonstrate that we can piece together information about proprietary code by looking to leaked documents, public records, press releases, open-source code, and benchmark datasets, all of which, in this instance, instigate a systemic heteronormative and cisnormative bias that is increasingly being embedded in the internet.


Author(s):  
Florence Bétrisey ◽  
Valérie Boisvert ◽  
James Sumberg

AbstractThis paper analyses the use of metaphor in discourses around the “superweed” Palmer amaranth. Most weed scientists associated with the US public agricultural extension system dismiss the term superweed. However, together with the media, they indirectly encourage aggressive control practices by actively diffusing the framing of herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth as an existential threat that should be eradicated at any cost. We use argumentative discourse analysis to better understand this process. We analyze a corpus consisting of reports, policy briefs, and press releases produced by state extension services, as well as articles from professional and popular magazines and newspapers quoting extension specialists and/or public sector weed scientists or agronomists. We show how the superweed discourse is powered by negative metaphors, and legitimizes aggressive steps to eradicate the weed. This discourse reinforces the farmers’ techno-optimism master frame, contributes to deskilling of farmers and sidelines ethical concerns.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (17) ◽  
pp. 9843
Author(s):  
Ysé Commandré ◽  
Catherine Macombe ◽  
Sophie Mignon

In agro-food, Blockchain has been recently implemented in order to improve transparency. Blockchain raises great expectations of data decentralization and better efficiency–cost ratio, integration speed, and data protection that appear as promises of gains in all areas. The fundamental assumption was that transparency prevents or reduces illegitimate forms of power. However, discussions are emerging about how digitization is likely to exacerbate power inequalities in food systems, as transparency can become tyrannical when it contributes to the proliferation of audits, evaluations, and assessment measures. The objective of this research is to contribute by providing knowledge about the implications of this digitization for farmers. For a first exploratory study, we conducted 53 interviews with actors of digitalization of agri-food, and we used 9 press releases, 3 webinars, and 1 article published in a specialized French journal. These materials evoke 12 different agro-food chains recently equipped with blockchain in France. From this pool of chains, we focused on four through in-depth analysis of interviews and literature readings using NVivo software. The first results highlight that the use of blockchain for transparency rarely delivers on its promises. Blockchain tends to centralize control since few actors have access to the distributed ledger, and the visibility brought to farmers, at the consumer level, tends to become a form of control. While blockchain seems to provide some benefits to producers, it raises the issue of overloaded technology and the problem of their data privacy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 216
Author(s):  
Carlo Perrone ◽  
William Schilling ◽  
James J. Callery ◽  
Elizabeth A. Ashley ◽  
Mary Chambers ◽  
...  

Background: The COPCOV study (chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine prevention of coronavirus disease), which started recruitment in April 2020, is a multi-country double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial which is being conducted in healthcare facilities involved in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case management. COPCOV aims to recruit healthcare workers and other staff employed in facilities managing people with proven or suspected COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a series of engagement sessions, each involving a short presentation of the study, a section where attendees were asked to express if they would be interested in participating in such a study and which information they would need to change their view and an open Q&A section. Answers were transcribed and coded into themes by two independent investigators. Themes were derived from the data. The aims were to assess the feasibility of the study at the respective sites, to identify context-specific ethical issues, to understand concerns potential participants might have, to fine tune research procedures and to refine COPCOV information materials. They complemented other site-specific engagement, communication and public relation activities such as press releases and websites. Results: From 16th March 2020 to 20th January 2021, 12 engagement sessions were conducted in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Nepal and the UK involving 213 attendees in total. The sessions were designed to encourage potential participants and research professionals not directly involved in the project to interact with those who planned the study and those conducting it. Many attendees were keen to join the study while others had concerns. Questions raised revolved around the social value and study rationale; safety of trial medications and risk-benefit balance; study design and commitments. Conclusions: These sessions helped us refine information materials, identify misunderstandings about the study as well as complement site feasibility assessments. Our experience strongly supports the use of participatory practices prior to conducting clinical trials.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Liyana Ansharah Zimal ◽  
Attaf Awamiri Aysar

Crisis communication is the exchange of information between an organization and its constituents during and after the occurrence of a crisis. This research employs a descriptive technique and a qualitative method. Techniques for data gathering include observation, interviewing, and documenting. The aim of this research is to conduct an empirical examination of the execution of strategies and supporting and inhibiting variables in crisis communication in public relations. The findings of this research suggest that a crisis communication plan should be suitable and swift in order to overcome public reaction and avoid a protracted crisis communication. Communication in Times of Crisis Pre-Crisis management is carried out by Public Relations, namely in the preparation (Planning) stage, which includes the establishment of a Public Relations team responsible for providing information, a clean-up and executive summery formation team, and Crisis-Response, namely the manufacturing stage. Press releases, clarifications, establishing stakeholder and media relations, and finally, Post-Crisis, namely the advancement of Public Relations not only to improve the company's image but also to improve performance, press conferences, and dissemination of publications are also implemented to improve things in the short and long term through programs


2021 ◽  
pp. 002224292110441
Author(s):  
Dionne Nickerson ◽  
Michael Lowe ◽  
Adithya Pattabhiramaiah ◽  
Alina Sorescu

Consumers are increasingly mindful of CSR when making purchase and consumption decisions. While extant research suggests small, positive effects of CSR on measures of firm financial valuation, consumers' behavioral response to CSR initiatives in the form of actual purchase decisions remains undocumented. This paper introduces a framework categorizing firm-initiated CSR efforts as “Corrective,” “Compensating,” or “Cultivating goodwill” actions, and documents the influence of these different types of CSR on brand sales. Leveraging a database of CSR press releases and sales data from leading CPG brands, the authors examine the effect of CSR announcements on brand sales. The findings suggest that CSR initiatives that genuinely seek to reduce a brand's negative social or environmental impact (“Corrective” and “Compensating”) produce the greatest sales lift, while CSR actions consisting of purely philanthropic-type efforts (“Cultivating goodwill”) can actually hurt sales. The experimental results show that, conditional on CSR reputation, consumers perceive varying degrees of sincerity in the different CSR types, which mediate the effect of CSR type on purchase intentions. Overall, the results suggest that consumers are more inclined to reward firms that directly reduce the negative by-products of their own business practices than to be impressed by public goodwill gestures.


2021 ◽  
pp. 107554702110383
Author(s):  
Chelsea L. Ratcliff

This study provides an in-depth analysis of how scientific uncertainty was conveyed along the dissemination pathway for a novel discovery linking genomic markers to depression risk. In this article, knowledge limitations described in the original scientific paper were mostly omitted from press releases, and a majority of news coverage mirrored press release content. However, the affiliated scientists depicted uncertainty to different degrees, appearing to influence the tenor of each institution’s press release and the news reports for which they were interviewed or quoted. News reports sometimes conveyed more caveats than the original scientific report. This case study presents detailed examples of uncertainty representations in the emerging domain of precision medicine, organized by a typology to guide future research.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dusko Ilic ◽  
Mirjana Liovic

The latest developments in the field of stem cell research and regenerative medicine compiled from publicly available information and press releases from nonacademic institutions in June 2021.


2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 145-155
Author(s):  
A. G. Donskikh

Personal data is a complex and multi-component term that reflects all the contradictions in the development of information technologies and their impact on the lives of citizens. In the current circumstances, the activities of the media are influenced by the changing personal data regulation, and the work of journalists in the field of getting, processing, and dissemination of information is complicated. The article analyzes the specifics of the use of personal data in media materials. An analysis of judicial practice shows that in the conditions of legislation on personal data, the media is able to carry out professional activities and protect their rights, however for effective work, editorial staff needs legal knowledge in the field of working with personal data.New legal expertise is required from journalists. Firstly, it is necessary to correctly understand the essence of the term personal data as a collection of information identifying a particular person. At the same time, it is important to take into account possible combinations and security of personal data.Secondly, the nature of the information to publish is important. For example, if the dissemination of personal data is carried out when highlighting a problem of public interest. This principle avoids depersonalization of important information but requires conscientiousness and good faith in the preparation of material. However, the reality is that in each case the understanding of the public interest of journalists does not always coincide with the understanding of the courts.Thirdly, it is crucially important to know how information was obtained and to assess the validity of the actions of journalists and sources in obtaining and transmitting information adequately. If the information is placed on public information resources following the current legislation, it is a legitimate source of information. This applies to information prepared by the press services of state organizations and departments, press releases posted on the websites of state authorities, information, disclosure, and publication of which is carried out in accordance with federal laws. Obtaining consent to disseminate information about a person from this person is also one of the most important rules that journalists, especially beginners, often forget about. Sometimes this is enough to avoid possible legal claims. The identity of the personal data subject who has become the object of journalistic material and its socio-professional status are also significant facts.


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