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Sally Mohamed Ali El-Morsy ◽  
Mahmoud Hussein ◽  
Hamdy M. Mousa

<p>Arabic is a Semitic language and one of the most natural languages distinguished by the richness in morphological enunciation and derivation. This special and complex nature makes extracting information from the Arabic language difficult and always needs improvement. Open information extraction systems (OIE) have been emerged and used in different languages, especially in English. However, it has almost not been used for the Arabic language. Accordingly, this paper aims to introduce an OIE system that extracts the relation tuple from Arabic web text, exploiting Arabic dependency parsing and thinking carefully about all possible text relations. Based on clause types' propositions as extractable relations and constituents' grammatical functions, the identities of corresponding clause types are established. The proposed system named Arabic open information extraction(AOIE) can extract highly scalable Arabic text relations while being domain independent. Implementing the proposed system handles the problem using supervised strategies while the system relies on unsupervised extraction strategies. Also, the system has been implemented in several domains to avoid information extraction in a specific field. The results prove that the system achieves high efficiency in extracting clauses from large amounts of text.</p>

2022 ◽  

Linguistics is made up of great individuals. Throughout its not so long history as compared with other sciences, linguistics boasts many remarkable contributors who paved the way for human language study and thus led us into exploring the rising, development and evolution not only of natural languages, but also that of our own species. This book is a tribute to one of those great contributors to linguistics, T. Givón. As he argues for an evolutionary approach to communication and language, Givón has covered various research fields in linguistics such as morphosyntax, semantics, pragmatics, discourse and text, second language acquisition, pidgins and creoles, language universals, grammaticalization, and cognitive science.

2022 ◽  
Thomas Brochhagen ◽  
Gemma Boleda

Lexical ambiguity is pervasive in language, and often systematic. For instance, the Spanish word "dedo" refers to both a toe and a finger, and this TOE-FINGER ambiguity is found in over 100 languages. Previous work shows that systematic ambiguities involve related meanings. This is attributed to cognitive pressure towards simplicity in language, as it makes lexicons easier to learn and use. The present study examines the interplay between this pressure and the competing pressure for languages to support accurate information transfer. We hypothesize that ambiguity follows a Goldilocks principle that balances the two pressures: meanings are more likely to attach to the same word when they are related to an optimal degree ---neither too much, nor too little. We find support for this principle in data from over 1200 languages and 1400 meanings. Our results thus suggest that universal forces shape the lexicons of natural languages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012035
Nemika Tyagi ◽  
Sudeshna Chakraborty ◽  
Jyotsna ◽  
Aditya Kumar ◽  
Nzanzu Katasohire Romeo

Abstract Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) arises due to the presence of ambiguity in the text during the semantic analysis of natural languages. It is a major unsolved problem in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and its applications. This paper explores and reviews WSD algorithms that have contributed to, or created state-of-art solutions in recent years. Moreover, this paper also aims to analyze the recent technological trends in the domain of WSD which can give us leverage to identify the possible future trajectory of the search for better WSD solutions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

One of the most critical activities of revealing terrorism-related information is classifying online documents.The internet provides consumers with a variety of useful knowledge, and the volume of web material is increasingly growing. This makes finding potentially hazardous records incredibly difficult. To define the contents, merely extracting keywords from records is inadequate. Many methods have been studied so far to develop automatic document classification systems, they are mainly computational and knowledge-based approaches. due to the complexities of natural languages, these approaches do not provide sufficient results. To fix this shortcoming, we given approach of structure dependent on the WordNet hierarchy and the frequency of n-gram data that employs word similarity. Using four different queries terms from four different regions, this approach was checked for the NY Times articles that were sampled. Our suggested approach successfully removes background words and phrases from the document recognizes connected to terrorism texts, according to experimental findings.

D.A. Ammosov ◽  
A.V. Grigorev ◽  
N.V. Malysheva ◽  
L.S. Zamorshchikova

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (58) ◽  
pp. 245-256
Diogo Elizeu do Nascimento Pereira ◽  
Valquíria Maria Ribeiro Alves

Resumo: As variações linguísticas representam as diferentes formas de falar o idioma de uma nação, tendo em vista que a língua padrão de um país não é homogênea, constituindo uma característica inerente a todas as línguas naturais em reflexo das diferenças socioculturais e contextuais durante a produção de fala por parte de um indivíduo.  O contraste vivenciado por tais diferenças traz consigo problemas estruturais como o preconceito linguístico que afeta diretamente o cotiado das pessoas. Diante disto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar o preconceito linguístico no ambiente escolar perante as variações linguísticas vivenciadas no cotidiano escolar das turmas do 2ª ano do Ensino Médio. Este estudo configurou-se como uma pesquisa descritiva de caráter quanti-qualitativo, realizada com as turmas do 2º ano do ensino médio da Escola de Referência Odorico Melo da cidade de Parnamirim - PE, tendo o questionário como instrumento de coleta de dados, analisados pelo o método indutivo.  Nessa perspectiva os resultados apontaram as variações linguísticas   como um processo natural da língua e que os alunos podem compreendê-las firmando sua importância para o desenvolvimento de suas competências comunicativas em sala de aula, tanto na língua escrita quanto na língua oral, em detrimento do preconceito linguístico declarado visível e inerente no dia a dia em seu ambiente escolar, assim como o ensino mecânico da língua portuguesa em caráter retrógrado. Apesar do reconhecimento da variação linguística, os alunos consideram o seu nível de fala assertivo, mas admitem conviver em um espaço diversificado, marcado pelo o contexto das variações setoriais e socioeconômicas, que estão intimamente ligadas às atitudes preconceituosas que podem impactar no seu desenvolvimento escolar desencadeando uma série de problemas.---Abstract: Linguistic variations represent the different ways of speaking the language of a nation, considering that the standard language of a country is not homogeneous, constituting an inherent characteristic of all natural languages, reflecting the sociocultural and contextual differences during speech production by an individual. The contrast experienced by such differences brings with it structural problems such as linguistic prejudice that directly affects people's shares. In view of this, this research aimed to analyze linguistic prejudice in the school environment in the light of linguistic variations experienced in the daily school life of 2nd year high school classes. This study was configured as a descriptive quantitative and qualitative research, carried out with the 2nd year of high school classes at the Odorico Melo Reference School in the city of Parnamirim - PE, using the questionnaire as a data collection instrument, analyzed by the the inductive method. From this perspective, the results showed linguistic variations as a natural language process and that students can understand them, confirming their importance for the development of their communicative skills in the classroom, both in written and oral language, to the detriment of prejudice linguistic declared visible and inherent in the day-to-day in its school environment, as well as the mechanical teaching of the Portuguese language in a retrograde character. Despite the recognition of linguistic variation, students consider their level of speech assertive, but admit to living in a diverse space, marked by the context of sectorial and socioeconomic variations, which are closely linked to prejudiced attitudes that can impact their school development, triggering a series of problems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-19
Kọ́lá Abímbọ́lá

Are there universal principles, categories, or forms of reasoning that apply to all aspects of human experience—irrespective of culture and epoch? Numerous scholars have explored this very question from Africana perspectives: Kwasi Wiredu (1996) explored the philosophical issue of whether there are culturally defined values and concepts; Hallen and Sodipo (1986) examined the question of whether there are unique African indigenous systems of knowledge; Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o (1994) evaluated the role of colonialism in the language of African literature; Oyerò nkẹ ́ ́ Oyěwumi (1997) argued that “gender” is a Western cultural invention that is foreign to Yorùbá systems of sociation; and Helen Veran (2001) argued that even though science, mathematics, and logic are not culturally relative, “certainty” is nonetheless derived from cultural practices and associations. Building on these and other works, this essay argues that: (i) incommensurability of “worldviews,” “perspectives,” “paradigms,” or “conceptual schemes” springs from deeper, more fundamental cognitive categories of logic that are coded into natural languages; and that (ii) consequently, as long as African reflective reasoning is expressed solely (or predominantly) in European languages, the authenticity of the “African” in African philosophy is questionable.

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