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This study investigated (1) the challenges encountered by a heterogeneous group of first year undergraduates during a synchronous on-line collaborative writing activity conducted through Google Classroom using Google Docs and (2) their perceptions of the pedagogical approach. Five sub-groups of undergraduates participated in the study, and their written transcripts were analysed for patterns of interaction in terms of equality and mutuality based on the Taxonomy of Writing Change Functions and Scaffolding Strategies (Li and Zhu, 2017). Data on learner perceptions were analysed for underlying themes. The findings, which were interpreted from the perspective of the Complex Dynamic Systems Theory, revealed that synchronous on-line collaboration is complex and challenging due to the dynamic patterns of interaction. This study concludes that Google Docs is a useful pedagogical tool and could be used for second language writing development despite the challenges. However, in transferring the findings to other second language learners or learning contexts, caution needs to be applied.

Xiaotian Wang ◽  

English as a second language (ESL) education refers to teaching non-native English speakers English as a second language. The number of English language learners (ELLs) is increasing in the United States in recent decades because of globalization, including immigrants, international students, merchants, refugees, etc. One of ELLs’ main characters is their various cultural backgrounds. Teaching and maintaining a diverse class within a safe learning environment can benefit students both now and in the future. In this case, understanding ELLs’ diverse cultures and knowing how to maintain ELLs’ cultural diversity is a significant consideration in American ESL education nowadays. This study reviews the cultural diversity in American ESL education by analyzing three New York elementary schools. The author summarizes some critical ways to maintain ELLs’ cultural diversity from four aspects: (1) the background of American ESL education and cultural diversity; (2) cultural diversity in school; (3) cultural diversity in family; (4) cultural diversity in communities. Finally, the study indicates the significance of connections among schools, families, and communities and identifies some difficulties when maintaining cultural diversity in education.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 152-173
Sarat Kumar Doley

Second language (L2) attitude and motivation-related studies focusing on differences caused by age have mostly highlighted the temporal dimension of L2 attitude and motivation. Age-related L2 motivation studies have also been gainfully employed at comparisons between L2 learners of different age groups recruited from different L2 learning environments. Such studies have not, however, attempted an analysis of the L2 attitudinal and motivational differences that may exist among L2 learners within a closer age range, e.g., 18 to 25 years. This article presents the findings of an L2 attitude and motivation survey, using a modified version of Dӧrnyei et al. (2006) and Ryan (2005), conducted among secondary, undergraduate, and postgraduate English as a second language (ESL) learners (N210) in India. It primarily presents a comparative analysis of the L2 attitudinal and motivational constructs of integrativeness, instrumentality, cultural interest, linguistic self-confidence, and L2 anxiety attested in the sample. Additionally, it offers a description of the correlation between the five L2 attitudinal and motivational constructs concerning the different ESL groups. As the ESL learners across the academic levels demonstrated ESL motivation more on the side of instrumentality, they also reported linguistic self-confidence more in the familiar environment of an L2 classroom than outside of it. Since better motivational strategies enhance learner dedication to the learning of a certain L2, an elaborated understanding of the specific differences in L2 attitude and motivation within this important age range should help design more useful and effective L2 pedagogical methods.

آمنة المداني

Throughout this work, the general characteristics of the Maghreb Journal of Documentation and Information have been introduced since its’ establishment in 1983 to 2020. The Maghreb Journal of Documentation and Information is published annually by the Higher Institute of Documentation. The researchers have used the bibliometric approach in order to quantify the frequency of publications and to review the percentage of articles’ productivity and their distribution during the years of publications. The study found that there is an average of 447 articles published by 572 authors in 29 issues over a period of 24 years from the actual publications, without considering the years of interruption. It is worth to mention that the journal was resuming its activities and functions after each interruption, especially after the scientific events to publish their activities or after changing its directing members. Moreover, in order to clarify the direction of the journal and its editorial board, the bibliometric approach has also helped to extract the sub-topics presented by the publications, as it is the only journal specialised in the information science in Tunisia. In addition, besides studying of the linguistic writing choices of the authors; the study focused on the Influence of the French language in writings to understand the general cultural and social framework that made the Arabic language ranked as a second language in number of publications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 305-324
Abdullatif Alshatti

<p style="text-align: justify;">This study is an endeavour to explicate the dissonance of the linguistic quality outcome of study abroad (SA) experiences by exploring the second language (L2) motivation of six academic sojourners in Manchester. A person-in-context approach revealed that developing intimate relationships with ‘native-speakers’, providing L2-mediated interaction opportunities with international students, and social approval were key determinants of the extent to which SA students were invested in social practices. Such social engagements were found to stem from second language motivation that is part of identity construction process. In addition, the thematic analysis of the narrative inquiries suggests that the global status of the English language defies the traditional conceptualisations of L2 motivation as most participants’ motivations were formed despite their negative or neutral attitudes towards the English community. The findings also endorse the role of the other as a robust motivational source by which learners can replenish their motivation stream, leading to social identity investment to construct their ideological selves. The paper concludes with a recommendation to re-interpret the conceptualisation of the Ideal L2 Self system because ‘native-speakers’ are rarely the closest parallels to L2 learners, and it should incorporate explicit intrinsic orientations. Furthermore, language institutions in SA contexts should direct their focus on establishing conversation clubs and hosting social events for SA students to provide a safe space for their identities to be developed, enacted and reconstructed.</p>

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