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2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 111286
Author(s):  
Takehiko Ito

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (6) ◽  
pp. 25
Author(s):  
Yoko Oi

本研究は、自己評価や他己評価による英作文学習不安に対する影響とthe Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (Cheng, 2004)の妥当性を探るのが目的である。分析方法は、293人の日本の高校生を対象に自己評価と他己評価の2グループに分けた後、10日間の間に、5回の英作文作成と生徒評価活動(自己評価か他己評価)を集中的に行った。それぞれの生徒評価活動前後に、高校生の英作文学習不安の因子構造変化のグループ比較を、探索的因子分析を使って行った。結果は、事前の因子構造は自己評価グループと他己評価グループは同様だが、実験後は違いが見られた。しかし、主要因子は、実験前後ともに認知的不安による英作文への回避意識であることは変わりがなかった。本研究が英作文授業の活性化につながる事を示唆したい。 This study examined the effects of self-assessment vs. peer assessment on Japanese high school students’ writing anxiety and the validity of Cheng’s (2004) Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI). After assignment to either the self-assessment or peer-assessment condition, two groups of Japanese high school students (N=293) participated in a series of five writing and student-assessment sessions over a period of 10 days. An exploratory factor analysis was then conducted on SLWAI data collected before and after these sessions to compare the effects of the writing practice and student assessment type on the factor structure of the two groups’ writing anxiety. The results showed post-treatment factor structure differences that had not been present initially. Nevertheless, the main factor both before and after the treatment sessions was English writing avoidance due to cognitive anxiety. These findings suggest the importance of dealing with learner anxiety to improve English writing instruction.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elena Nicoladis ◽  
Chris Westbury ◽  
Cassandra Foursha-Stevenson

Second language (L2) learners often show influence from their first language (L1) in all domains of language. This cross-linguistic influence could, in some cases, be mediated by semantics. The purpose of the present study was to test whether implicit English gender connotations affect L1 English speakers’ judgments of the L2 French gender of objects. We hypothesized that gender estimates derived from word embedding models that measure similarity of word contexts in English would affect accuracy and response time on grammatical gender (GG) decision in L2 French. L2 French learners were asked to identify the GG of French words estimated to be either congruent or incongruent with the implicit gender in English. The results showed that they were more accurate with words that were congruent with English gender connotations than words that were incongruent, suggesting that English gender connotations can influence grammatical judgments in French. Response times showed the same pattern. The results are consistent with semantics-mediated cross-linguistic influence.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-95
Author(s):  
Bernard Meshach Aguma ◽  
◽  
Caroline Kinuu Kimathi ◽  
Martin Situma ◽  
◽  
...  

The adoption of virtual teaching and learning of a second language in the Nigerian educational system has received little attention. COVID-19 lock-down, imposed by the governments of the nations, forced educational institutions globally and locally to adapt virtual teaching and learning of English language. This research paper investigated the challenges of virtual teaching and learning of a second language (English) in selected secondary schools, Isu Ikwuato L.A. Abia State, Nigeria. It used a mixed method convergent parallel research design. The purposive sampling technique was used to select secondary schools that adopted virtual teaching and learning. The targeted population was 2000 English students and teachers with a sample size of 333. The results revealed that the schools made use of synchronous, asynchronous and blended types of online teaching and learning, and the students had a positive attitude. Both students and teachers experienced challenges of poor network, lack of ICT training, unstable electricity, and financial constraint. This study recommends the following: Language Policy Makers in Nigerian Educational System to map out the strategies that will incorporate online second language teaching and learning skills in the curriculum. That Marist Educational Board in partnership with the Ministry of Education in Nigeria, provide virtual supplementary materials for English language education. Adequate virtual training to be provided for English teachers and students. That the challenges of internet fluctuation, power shortage, insufficient virtual materials, inadequate funds, technical issues, virtual skills be addressed by all the stakeholders in education.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258458
Author(s):  
Sophie Gillet ◽  
Cristina Barbu ◽  
Martine Poncelet

The results of studies targeting cognitive and academic advantages in children frequenting early bilingual immersion school programs (CLIL) have been contradictory. While the impact of the amount of CLIL experience has already been studied, the role of the second language learned has been little studied to account for differences among study findings. The link between executive skills (EF) and scholar abilities (e.g., mathematics) in the CLIL context has also been little investigated. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the impact of CLIL on EF and academic performances varies depending on the immersion language and the duration of CLIL experience. The sample included a total of 230 French-speaking children attending second (141) and fifth (89) grade classes. Within each grade, there were three matched language groups composed of children respectively immersed in English, immersed in Dutch, and non-immersed controls. The children were administered tasks assessing executive functions [alerting, cognitive flexibility, and working memory], as well as arithmetic abilities. In second grade, we detected no difference in EF between the language groups. On the other hand, in fifth grade, the two immersed groups outperformed the non-immersed group on the cognitive flexibility task but did not differ between them. Moreover, only the Dutch immersed group outperformed the control group on the working memory task. Arithmetic performances also differed depending on the language learned; in second grade, Dutch learners performed better than the monolingual group. In fifth grade, Dutch learners outperformed the two other groups. These results suggest that the impact of CLIL on executive skills and arithmetic performances might be modulated by the amount of CLIL experience and the second language learned in immersion.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Si Chen ◽  
Yike Yang ◽  
Ratree Wayland

Purpose: This study is to investigate whether Cantonese-speaking musicians may show stronger CP than Cantonese-speaking non-musicians in perceiving pitch directions generated based on Mandarin tones. It also aims to examine whether musicians may be more effective in processing stimuli and more sensitive to subtle differences caused by vowel quality.Methods: Cantonese-speaking musicians and non-musicians performed a categorical identification and a discrimination task on rising and falling continua of fundamental frequency generated based on Mandarin level, rising and falling tones on two vowels with nine duration values.Results: Cantonese-speaking musicians exhibited a stronger categorical perception (CP) of pitch contours than non-musicians based on the identification and discrimination tasks. Compared to non-musicians, musicians were also more sensitive to the change of stimulus duration and to the intrinsic F0 in pitch perception in pitch processing.Conclusion: The CP was strengthened due to musical experience and musicians benefited more from increased stimulus duration and were more efficient in pitch processing. Musicians might be able to better use the extra time to form an auditory representation with more acoustic details. Even with more efficiency in pitch processing, musicians' ability to detect subtle pitch changes caused by intrinsic F0 was not undermined, which is likely due to their superior ability to process temporal information. These results thus suggest musicians may have a great advantage in learning tones of a second language.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Troy McConachy ◽  
Anthony J. Liddicoat

Author(s):  
Essa Ali Qurbi

This study investigated second language learners’ processing of ambiguous words (e.g., bank: [1] a financial institution, [2] an edge of a river/lake) and whether these learners are able to activate the secondary meaning as quickly as they do with the dominant meaning. English L2 and L1 participants used a window paradigm to perform a self-paced reading task, in which all sentences were biased for the secondary meaning (i.e., bank as an edge of a river/lake). The results showed that L1 participants activated both the dominant and the secondary meanings of an ambiguous word even when it is embedded within a secondary-biasing context. However, L2 participants had some difficulty in activating the L2 secondary meaning even when the preceding context was biased for it. The results of the L1 participants were compatible with the autonomous access model in that all meanings of an ambiguous [L1] word are accessed even when the context is biasing for a specific meaning. However, the results of the L2 participants, although they knew both meanings of each ambiguous word in this study based on their post-experiment questionnaire, showed that the more dominant meaning of an L2 ambiguous word is activated first, even when the context is biasing for a secondary meaning.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haomin Zhang ◽  
Xing Zhang ◽  
Mengjie Li ◽  
Yiming Zhang

This study aims to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to second language (L2) Chinese reading comprehension through potential mediating factors. Adult L2 Chinese learners (n = 447) participated in the study and completed two morphological awareness tasks (segmentation and discrimination), two vocabulary knowledge tasks (character knowledge and word-meaning knowledge), one lexical inference task, and one reading comprehension task. By testing alternative path models, this study identified the preferred model assuming the covariates of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge jointly contributed to L2 Chinese reading comprehension through lexical inference. The written modality of morphological awareness induced the activation of both morphological and orthographic information in print. The result suggests that morphological awareness (in the form of grapho-morphological knowledge) and vocabulary knowledge seem to be two parallel components under the same construct predicting Chinese reading comprehension. More importantly, this study underscores the intermediary effect of lexical inference in associating morphological awareness and reading comprehension in L2 Chinese learners.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaoyan Wang

A noteworthy frame of the literature has maintained the idea that communication in the classroom is dominant in language education, and in the process of language learning, teachers as an important figure may apply several ways to develop interpersonal relationships and social manners, such as teacher immediacy that has been established to support affective and cognitive learning in instructional settings. Therefore, this theoretical review tries to systematically refocus on the existing literature about teacher immediacy and its types, such as non-verbal and verbal, and their significant connections with affective and cognitive education. To this end, this review focuses on social behavior to review the eminence of teacher immediacy in the classroom and unquestionably exemplify their relationship with affective and cognitive learning. As a final fact, this review has been intended to consider the prevailing literature about teacher behavior, and suggestions and recommendations have been presented correspondingly for language teaching stakeholders in the educational setting.


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