inductive method
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Bianca Hanganu ◽  
Beatrice Gabriela Ioan

Background: Complaints regarding medical practice represent a harsh reality of the current world. Patients have the right to receive explanations and compensation when they are injured during the medical act, but the increased potential for exposure to complaints determines personal and professional consequences for the doctors, with significant impact on their health and practice. Thus, the aim of our research was to analyze in depth the impact of complaints on the doctors involved. Materials and methods: The authors conducted a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview, addressed to doctors who had complaints from patients. The participants in our research were identified using an adapted version of the snowball method. Results: After the analysis of the interviews using the inductive method, nine themes resulted, seven of which are addressed in this paper: injustice, personal impact, professional impact, difficulties, supportive factors, the attitude of the hospital management and the attitude of colleagues. At the personal level, the doctors were overwhelmed by insomnia, nightmares, stress and anxiety, and at the professional level by doubts about medical decisions, fear, anxiety and the tendency to avoid patients with severe diseases. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicians who had complaints from patients are deeply affected by the complaint itself and the associated investigation procedure, even if, to a lesser extent, some of the participants found motivation for a better management of the situation. The study also showed the need for changes in the legal and medical systems in order to create mechanisms to support the doctors during the investigation process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (6) ◽  
pp. 84-92
E. Yu. Kolesnikov ◽  
F. Vasileios

The purpose of the article was to analyze the problems currently standing in the way of more effective application of the risk-based approach methodology in the field of technogenic safety management. Methods — theoretical, inductive method, analysis of own experience, adopted normative legal acts, other publications. The main results of the work include the following: • despite the broadest use of the concept of “risk” in the field of technogenic safety management, there is no generally accepted interpretation of it to date; • often the evaluative concept of “risk” is mistakenly used instead of objectively existing risk factors; • quantifiably technogenic risk should be characterized by indicators of numerical nature, having vector objects, since two components should be indicated for the complete assignment of the indicator: the probability and the amount of damage; • experience shows that the methods of assessing the probabilistic component of risk indicators recommended by regulatory documents on the analysis and quantification of technogenic risk are accompanied by a very large uncertainty, therefore, instead of the traditional point statement, a more adequate method of assessment is the use of an interval approach that takes into account and allows quantifying this uncertainty; • the analysis showed that the so-called frequency approach, which is most often used to assess the probabilistic component of technogenic risk indicators, is used improperly, has no basis, since, as a rule, the phenomenon of statistical stability is not observed in the object area of the technosphere, there are no general aggregates; • in society and even among specialists, by now there is no understanding of the need to express all three components of damage from an accident (explosion/fire) in monetary terms, without which it is impossible to estimate and express the amount of total damage: —  in conclusion, four key problems that hinder the more effective use of the risk-based approach methodology in the field of technogenic safety management are listed; —  imperfection of the existing methodological base for the analysis and quantitative assessment of technogenic risk; — the problem of staffing in the field of technogenic risk management; — lack of national criteria for acceptable risk; —  complete disregard of the problem of uncertainty of the results of the COR, the lack of methodological support for the procedure of analysis and quantification of this uncertainty. Conclusion — the efforts of the entire community of specialists-researchers, legislators, practitioners engaged in various aspects of the problem of technosphere safety management are necessary to solve the tasks specified in the article.

Bejtullah Ismail Gashi Bejtullah Ismail Gashi

This research aims to clarify the provisions in which the Kosovan family law violated Islamic Shari’a، the researcher followed the inductive method، the analytical method and the comparative method for its suitability to the study، the researcher reached a number of results، most notably that the Kosovan family law violated the Islamic Shari، a in the folloving issues: prohibiting polygamy, alloving the Muslim woman to marry a non- Muslim, the Kosovan law also allowed the court to allow to marry Non –Marriageable female relatives by affinity for acceptable and clear reasons, the researcher also recommended that the Kosovar legislator shall adopt the provisions of Islamic Shari,a that contribute to protecting the rights of family members from Islamic Sharia.

Heba Mohamad Kardosh, Abdulkader Abdulkarim Hariri Heba Mohamad Kardosh, Abdulkader Abdulkarim Hariri

The aim of the study was to define some developmental concepts and discuss a variety of development theories that addressed economic development and its effect on the development and growth of the regions of major cities. The importance of the economic factor in the development process was emphasized in most development theories, by determining the most suitable investment locations and the best delivery of activities and services based on the best relationships. Afterwards, some Arab and international experiences were examined, which discussed the topic of research based on an analytical study of various economic considerations, and different scenarios were used to set development plans based on the priorities for achieving goals that differed by country. The study assumes that the lack of developmental balance between the city and its region is due to land use inconsistency and a lack of long-term planning for available resources and development potential. This resulted in the loss of many commercial and development prospects, a decline in agricultural output, and a rise in real estate rents in the surrounding areas of big cities in general, and Aleppo in particular. To track the problem, we used the historical method, the inductive method to read the facts, the deductive method to elicit the sources of the problem, the analytical method to analyze the causes, and the results were formulated using the analysis. Then, based on the strategies, theories, and experiences studied in the first topic, a development strategy was proposed based on the development indicators of the Greater Aleppo City region. To promote sustainable growth in the country, this strategy seeks to reduce development disparities throughout the region and achieve equity in the distribution of economic activity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (58) ◽  
pp. 245-256
Diogo Elizeu do Nascimento Pereira ◽  
Valquíria Maria Ribeiro Alves

Resumo: As variações linguísticas representam as diferentes formas de falar o idioma de uma nação, tendo em vista que a língua padrão de um país não é homogênea, constituindo uma característica inerente a todas as línguas naturais em reflexo das diferenças socioculturais e contextuais durante a produção de fala por parte de um indivíduo.  O contraste vivenciado por tais diferenças traz consigo problemas estruturais como o preconceito linguístico que afeta diretamente o cotiado das pessoas. Diante disto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar o preconceito linguístico no ambiente escolar perante as variações linguísticas vivenciadas no cotidiano escolar das turmas do 2ª ano do Ensino Médio. Este estudo configurou-se como uma pesquisa descritiva de caráter quanti-qualitativo, realizada com as turmas do 2º ano do ensino médio da Escola de Referência Odorico Melo da cidade de Parnamirim - PE, tendo o questionário como instrumento de coleta de dados, analisados pelo o método indutivo.  Nessa perspectiva os resultados apontaram as variações linguísticas   como um processo natural da língua e que os alunos podem compreendê-las firmando sua importância para o desenvolvimento de suas competências comunicativas em sala de aula, tanto na língua escrita quanto na língua oral, em detrimento do preconceito linguístico declarado visível e inerente no dia a dia em seu ambiente escolar, assim como o ensino mecânico da língua portuguesa em caráter retrógrado. Apesar do reconhecimento da variação linguística, os alunos consideram o seu nível de fala assertivo, mas admitem conviver em um espaço diversificado, marcado pelo o contexto das variações setoriais e socioeconômicas, que estão intimamente ligadas às atitudes preconceituosas que podem impactar no seu desenvolvimento escolar desencadeando uma série de problemas.---Abstract: Linguistic variations represent the different ways of speaking the language of a nation, considering that the standard language of a country is not homogeneous, constituting an inherent characteristic of all natural languages, reflecting the sociocultural and contextual differences during speech production by an individual. The contrast experienced by such differences brings with it structural problems such as linguistic prejudice that directly affects people's shares. In view of this, this research aimed to analyze linguistic prejudice in the school environment in the light of linguistic variations experienced in the daily school life of 2nd year high school classes. This study was configured as a descriptive quantitative and qualitative research, carried out with the 2nd year of high school classes at the Odorico Melo Reference School in the city of Parnamirim - PE, using the questionnaire as a data collection instrument, analyzed by the the inductive method. From this perspective, the results showed linguistic variations as a natural language process and that students can understand them, confirming their importance for the development of their communicative skills in the classroom, both in written and oral language, to the detriment of prejudice linguistic declared visible and inherent in the day-to-day in its school environment, as well as the mechanical teaching of the Portuguese language in a retrograde character. Despite the recognition of linguistic variation, students consider their level of speech assertive, but admit to living in a diverse space, marked by the context of sectorial and socioeconomic variations, which are closely linked to prejudiced attitudes that can impact their school development, triggering a series of problems.

Svetlana S. Aleeva ◽  
Maria Ye. Zhukova ◽  
Svetlana A. Ivanova ◽  
Albina V. Kachmazova ◽  
Elena B. Kozlova

The purpose of the article was to study the legal nature, concept, and motives for the acquisition of property rights in Russian civil law. The main method of documentary research. The article also uses the inductive method, the method of systematic scientific analysis, comparative legal methods, and historical methods. The main method underlying the solution of the problem is to study the legal bases and characteristics of the acquisition of property rights. The article demonstrates the theoretical irresoluble of the problem of scientific understanding of the grounds for acquiring property rights in the civil law of Russia and other countries. The authors of the article consider that the interpretation of Russian legal norms on property rights is multidimensional in contrast to the relatively recent past. It is concluded that judicial argumentation has occupied an important place in the modern scientific interpretation of civil law rules on property rights. Both the modern legal state and the constitution were created by interpretation and argumentation, including the rules of the property law institute.

2021 ◽  
pp. 137-163
Simon Cox

This chapter examines the life and work of the British magus Aleister Crowley, focusing on the place of Orientalism and the subtle body in the development of his magical system. After a short biographical section where the chapter traces his life to the age of thirty when his occult vocation began in earnest, the chapter shifts to Crowley’s interest in the Orient, analyzing his engagement with Kabbalah, Daoism, yoga, and Islamic mysticism. The chapter then zeroes in on Crowley’s presentation of the subtle body in his magnum opus before moving on to theoretical analysis of the basic philosophical tenets of Crowley’s system, interrogating his skepticism and inductive method in engaging with occult and Astral phenomena. The chapter ends with a brief discussion on the process of cultural transformation, following the subtle body as it moves from a term of translation to a creolized fusion (ala Blavatsky) where Oriental terminology forms a sort of veneer over a Neoplatonic concept, to a fully hybrid concept (as in Crowley) that is neither fully a Neoplatonic idea nor an Oriental import, but something in between.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Giacomo Frisoni ◽  
Gianluca Moro ◽  
Giulio Carlassare ◽  
Antonella Carbonaro

The automatic extraction of biomedical events from the scientific literature has drawn keen interest in the last several years, recognizing complex and semantically rich graphical interactions otherwise buried in texts. However, very few works revolve around learning embeddings or similarity metrics for event graphs. This gap leaves biological relations unlinked and prevents the application of machine learning techniques to promote discoveries. Taking advantage of recent deep graph kernel solutions and pre-trained language models, we propose Deep Divergence Event Graph Kernels (DDEGK), an unsupervised inductive method to map events into low-dimensional vectors, preserving their structural and semantic similarities. Unlike most other systems, DDEGK operates at a graph level and does not require task-specific labels, feature engineering, or known correspondences between nodes. To this end, our solution compares events against a small set of anchor ones, trains cross-graph attention networks for drawing pairwise alignments (bolstering interpretability), and employs transformer-based models to encode continuous attributes. Extensive experiments have been done on nine biomedical datasets. We show that our learned event representations can be effectively employed in tasks such as graph classification, clustering, and visualization, also facilitating downstream semantic textual similarity. Empirical results demonstrate that DDEGK significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (13) ◽  
pp. 163-185
Roberta Oliveira Dal Sochio ◽  
Paulo Vinicius Sporleder de Souza

The article deals with the main theories of causality, as well as the emergence and affirmation of the Objective Imputation Theory proposed by Claus Roxin. In order to answer questions about when an action can be considered a cause of an outcome and when it can be imputed to a person, Criminal Law and other branches of knowledge have formulated several explanatory theories. However, even after elaborating several theoretical conceptions, the conclusion on how to explain the causal and normative nexus of conduct relevant to criminal law has not yet been reached. Given this, the objective is, through a bibliographic search with the inductive method, to analyze which was the theory accepted by the Brazilian Penal Code and to determine if it requires the causal and normative nexus. The result is that the material criminal law incorporated the theory of the condition, in addition to requiring objective imputation to consider a person as the perpetrator of a crime.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-65
Daiana Allessi Nicoletti Alves ◽  
Wanessa Assunção Ramos

Em 10 de julho de 2019, Jair Messias Bolsonaro disse: “Muitos tentam nos deixar de lado dizendo que o estado é laico. O estado é laico, mas nós somos cristãos. (...) Por isso, o meu compromisso: poderei indicar dois ministros para o Supremo Tribunal Federal. Um deles será terrivelmente evangélico”. O tema do presente artigo, portanto, é o estado laico na República Federativa do Brasil diante do incitamento político de algumas religiões em detrimento de outras e a notória influência histórica que algumas crenças apresentam com relação ao aspecto do gênero. O objetivo geral é analisar como a violação ao estado laico influencia nas questões do gênero feminino e, consequentemente, viola o Estado Democrático de Direito. Para tanto, os objetivos específicos são: a) analisar o Estado Democrático de Direito e o princípio do estado laico; b) analisar os requisitos para compor o Supremo Tribunal Federal; e c) analisar a influência de crenças religiosas com relação ao gênero feminino. A metodologia a ser utilizada é de pesquisa qualitativa, por intermédio de um método indutivo com análise documental. A presente pesquisa apresentou como resultado a violação ao Estado Democrático de Direito, em 2019, acerca da laicidade do estado, que feriu diferentes princípios constitucionais. On July 10, 2019 Jair Messias Bolsonaro said: “Many try to leave us aside saying that the state is secular. The state is secular, but we are Christians. (...) Therefore, my commitment: I will be able to appoint two ministers to the Federal Supreme Court. One of them will be terribly evangelical.” The theme of this article, therefore, is the secular state in the Federative Republic of Brazil, in view of the political incitement of some religions to the detriment of others, and the notorious historical influence that some beliefs have in relation to the aspect of gender. The general objective is to analyze how the violation of the secular state influences women's issues and, consequently, violates the Democratic Rule of Law. Therefore, the specific objectives are: a) to analyze the Democratic Rule of Law and the principle of the secular state; b) analyze the requirements to compose the Federal Supreme Court; and c) analyze the influence of religious beliefs regarding the female gender. The methodology to be used is qualitative research, through an inductive method with document analysis. The present research presented as a result the violation of the Democratic Rule of Law, in 2019, concerning the secularity of the state, that hurt different constitutional principles.

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