To further understand how to combat COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy, we examined the effects of pro-vaccine expert consensus messaging on lay attitudes of vaccine safety and intention to vaccinate. We surveyed N = 729 individuals from four countries. Regardless of its content, consensus messaging had an overall small positive effect. Most critically, the direction of the effect varied depending on the baseline attitudes of participants: consensus information improved the attitude of vaccine sceptics and uncertain individuals, while having no effect on vaccine supporters. We also analysed whether the persuasiveness of expert consensus would increase after puncturing an illusion of explanatory depth in individuals. This further manipulation had no direct effect, nor interacted with the type of expert consensus. We conclude that highlighting expert consensus may be a way to increase support toward COVID-19 vaccination in those already hesitant or sceptical with little risk of side-effects.
Background: Carbapenems are considered the last line of defence against bacterial infections, but their high consumption and the resulting antibacterial resistance are an increasing global concern. In this context, the Chinese health authority issued an expert consensus on the clinical applications of carbapenems. However, the long- and short-term effects of the expert consensus on carbapenem use are not clear.Methods: This study was conducted in Shaanxi, a northwest province of China. We collected all available carbapenem procurement data between January 2017 and December 2020 from the Provincial Drug Centralized Bidding Procurement System. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the longitudinal effectiveness of expert consensus by measuring the change in the Defined Daily Dosesper 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID), the percentage of carbapenem expenditures to total antimicrobial expenditure, the total carbapenem expenditure, and the defined daily cost (DDDc). We used Stata SE version 15.0 for data analysis, and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: After the distribution of the expert consensus, the level (p = 0.769) and trend (p = 0.184) of DID decreased, but the differences were not statistically significant. The percentage of carbapenem expenditures to total antimicrobial expenditure decreased abruptly (p < 0.001) after the intervention, but the long-term trend was still upward. There was no statistically significant relationship between the release of the expert consensus and carbapenem expenditure in the long term, but there was a decreasing trend (p = 0.032). However, the expert consensus had a positive impact on the economic burden of carbapenem usage in patients, as the level (p < 0.001), and trend (p = 0.003) of DDDc significantly decreased.Conclusion: The long-term effects of the distribution of the expert consensus on the use and expenditure of carbapenems in public health institutions in Shaanxi Province were not optimal. It is time to set up more administrative measures and scientific supervision to establish a specific index to limit the application of carbapenems.
AbstractPrimary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) has significantly contributed to reducing the mortality of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) even in cardiogenic shock and is now the standard of care in most of Japanese institutions. The Task Force on Primary PCI of the Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Interventional and Therapeutics (CVIT) society proposed an expert consensus document for the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) focusing on procedural aspects of primary PCI in 2018. Updated guidelines for the management of AMI were published by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in 2017 and 2020. Major changes in the guidelines for STEMI patients included: (1) radial access and drug-eluting stents (DES) over bare-metal stents (BMS) were recommended as a Class I indication, (2) complete revascularization before hospital discharge (either immediate or staged) is now considered as Class IIa recommendation. In 2020, updated guidelines for Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) patients, the followings were changed: (1) an early invasive strategy within 24 h is recommended in patients with NSTEMI as a Class I indication, (2) complete revascularization in NSTEMI patients without cardiogenic shock is considered as Class IIa recommendation, and (3) in patients with atrial fibrillation following a short period of triple antithrombotic therapy, dual antithrombotic therapy (e.g., DOAC and single oral antiplatelet agent preferably clopidogrel) is recommended, with discontinuation of the antiplatelet agent after 6 to 12 months. Furthermore, an aspirin-free strategy after PCI has been investigated in several trials those have started to show the safety and efficacy. The Task Force on Primary PCI of the CVIT group has now proposed the updated expert consensus document for the management of AMI focusing on procedural aspects of primary PCI in 2022 version.
AbstractUncontrolled hypertension remains the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Isometric resistance training (IRT) has been shown to be a useful nonpharmacological therapy for reducing blood pressure (BP); however, some exercise physiologists and other health professionals are uncertain of the efficacy and safety of IRT. Experts’ consensus was sought in light of the current variability of IRT use as an adjunct treatment for hypertension. An expert consensus-building analysis (Delphi study) was conducted on items relevant to the safety, efficacy and delivery of IRT. The study consisted of 3 phases: (1) identification of items and expert participants for inclusion; (2) a two-round modified Delphi exercise involving expert panelists to build consensus; and (3) a study team consensus meeting for a final item review. A list of 50 items was generated, and 42 international experts were invited to join the Delphi panel. Thirteen and 10 experts completed Delphi Rounds 1 and 2, respectively, reaching consensus on 26 items in Round 1 and 10 items in Round 2. The study team consensus meeting conducted a final item review and considered the remaining 14 items for the content list. A final list of 43 items regarding IRT reached expert consensus: 7/10 items on safety, 11/11 items on efficacy, 10/12 items on programming, 8/10 items on delivery, and 7/7 on the mechanism of action. This study highlights that while experts reached a consensus that IRT is efficacious as an antihypertensive therapy, some still have safety concerns, and there is also ongoing conjecture regarding optimal delivery.
Cryptocurrency fraud has become a growing global concern, with various governments reporting an increase in the frequency of and losses from cryptocurrency scams. Despite increasing fraudulent activity involving cryptocurrencies, research on the potential of cryptocurrencies for fraud has not been examined in a systematic study. This review examines the current state of knowledge about what kinds of cryptocurrency fraud currently exist, or are expected to exist in the future, and provides comprehensive definitions of the frauds identified.
The study involved a scoping review of academic research and grey literature on cryptocurrency fraud and a 1.5-day expert consensus exercise. The review followed the PRISMA-ScR protocol, with eligibility criteria based on language, publication type, relevance to cryptocurrency fraud, and evidence provided. Researchers screened 391 academic records, 106 of which went on to the eligibility phase, and 63 of which were ultimately analysed. We screened 394 grey literature sources, 128 of which passed on to the eligibility phase, and 53 of which were included in our review. The expert consensus exercise was attended by high-profile participants from the private sector, government, and academia. It involved problem planning and analysis activities and discussion about the future of cryptocurrency crime.
The academic literature identified 29 different types of cryptocurrency fraud; the grey literature discussed 32 types, 14 of which were not identified in the academic literature (i.e., 47 unique types in total). Ponzi schemes and (synonymous) high yield investment programmes were most discussed across all literature. Participants in the expert consensus exercise ranked pump-and-dump schemes and ransomware as the most profitable and feasible threats, though pump-and-dumps were, notably, perceived as the least harmful type of fraud.
The findings of this scoping review suggest cryptocurrency fraud research is rapidly developing in volume and breadth, though we remain at an early stage of thinking about future problems and scenarios involving cryptocurrencies. The findings of this work emphasise the need for better collaboration across sectors and consensus on definitions surrounding cryptocurrency fraud to address the problems identified.