Economic Impact
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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Eva McLaughlin ◽  
Jun-Ki Choi ◽  
Kelly J. Kissock

Abstract Industrial energy efficiency assessments not only provide benefits to manufacturers, but also generate significant economic and environmental benefits to localities, states, and the nation through indirect and induced benefits. Quantifying these benefits requires a systematic economic framework for capturing these interactions. This article employs methodologies for improving the energy efficiency of small and medium-size industry through their combustion systems. Combustion systems offer large opportunities to enhance energy efficiency through adopting advanced technologies and better-informed operations. The case studies presented illuminate the potential savings and impacts from implementing energy-efficient combustion recommendations and the importance of energy audits and energy efficiency in the fight against climate change. This study describes and quantifies the cascading economic and environmental impacts of implementing the industrial energy efficiency recommendations offered by an energy auditing program by participating facilities over a ten-year period. Results showed that it is expected that a total of $185M would be saved in energy costs and 2.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions would be avoided annually, and about 972 jobs could be created in the studied region if all the combustion recommendations would be implemented. The broader view afforded by the proposed study can be used to support better energy efficient practices in manufacturing facilities, communities, and states.

2021 ◽  
Federico Rojo ◽  
Esther Conde ◽  
Héctor Torres ◽  
Luis Cabezón-Gutiérrez ◽  
Dolores Bautista ◽  

Abstract Background: Detection of the ROS1 rearrangement is mandatory in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to allow targeted therapy with specific inhibitors. However, in Spanish clinical practice ROS1 determination is not yet fully widespread. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and economic impact of sequentially testing ROS1 in addition to EGFR and ALK in Spain.Methods: A joint model (decision-tree and Markov model) was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of testing ROS1 strategy versus a no-ROS1 testing strategy in Spain. Distribution of ROS1 techniques, rates of testing, positivity, and invalidity of biomarkers included in the analysis (EGFR, ALK, ROS1 and PD-L1) were based on expert opinion and Lungpath real-world database. Treatment allocation depending on the molecular testing results was defined by expert opinion. For each treatment, a 3-states Markov model was developed, where progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were parameterized using exponential extrapolations to model transition of patients among health states. Only medical direct costs were included (€ 2021). A lifetime horizon was considered and a discount rate of 3% was applied for both costs and effects. Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainty.Results: A target population of 8,755 patients with advanced NSCLC (non-squamous or never smokers squamous) entered the model. Over a lifetime horizon, the ROS1 testing scenario produced additional 157.5 life years and 121.3 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared with no-ROS1 testing scenario. Total direct costs were increased up to € 2,244,737 for ROS1 testing scenario. The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) was 18,514 €/QALY. Robustness of the base-case results were confirmed by the sensitivity analysis.Conclusions: Our study shows that ROS1 testing in addition to EGFR and ALK is a cost-effective strategy compared to no-ROS1 testing, and it generates more than 120 QALYs in Spain over a lifetime horizon. Despite the low prevalence of ROS1 rearrangements in NSCLC patients, the clinical and economic consequences of ROS1 testing should encourage centers to test all advanced or metastatic NSCLC (non-squamous and never-smoker squamous) patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13318
Jianxia Li ◽  
Sorina Cernaianu ◽  
Claude Sobry ◽  
Xijia Liu

Chongli, an internationally renowned ski mecca, is famous for hosting the 2022 Winter Olympics. As a booster of local economic development, ski tourism facilitates Chongli in moving away from poverty, and provides a new model for the economic development of other impoverished areas in China. The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of ski tourism in Chongli on local economic development in detail, to clarify the relationship between ski tourism and its related industries, and propose improvement measures, using the methods of the literature review, Delphi and investigation. This paper presents a detailed analysis of indicators which reflect ski tourism and its economic development, and calculates the degree of influence of skiing tourism on local economic development. The results show that, except for transportation, storage and postal services, the local economy of Chongli is positively affected by the income of ski tourism and the number of ski tourists. The influence coefficient of ski tourism has exceeded the average level of social influence. Based on the place of ski tourism in Chongli, some strategies, such as extending the industrial chain and improving product quality to strengthen the economic impact of ski tourism, are proposed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
pp. 86-89
Gerson de Souza Pereira ◽  
Suziane dos Santos Maia ◽  
Marcelo Albuquerque de Albuquerque de Oliveira ◽  
Gabriela de Mattos Veroneze ◽  
Joaquim Maciel Da Costa Craveiro ◽  

The costs with the safety and health of employees are essential to guarantee the integrity of the workforce and maintain the productivity of the organization, nevertheless, the procedures and bureaucracy encountered by small entrepreneurs are a challenging factor for the class supporting a Management disproportionate risk for the size of the activities. That said, the NR-1 is a standard responsible for noting general actions which employers must comply with related to the Safety and Health of their employees in the most diverse work environments. In 2019, the Standard underwent changes through Ordinance No. 915 directly reflecting MEI’s, micro and small businesses covering matters such as PPRA and PCMSO. This article seeks, through a case study, to analyze the economic impact obtained by altering the NR-1 in three companies from different sectors located in the city of Manaus. Through analysis, it was possible to prove the economic effectiveness of the standard in the companies studied, providing speed and ease in the legal processes, in addition to facilitating the managerial routine.

2021 ◽  
pp. 140349482110595
Kristen Hagen ◽  
Stian Solem ◽  
Anne Kristin Stavrum ◽  
Jarle Eid ◽  
Gerd Kvale ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to major social and economic changes that could impact public mental health. The main aim of the current study was to investigate mental health in Norway during the COVID-19 outbreak (since the first confirmed case on 26 February 2020). Methods: The results are from the first wave of the data collection (1 April–2 June 2020), which took place during the outbreak along with its initial restrictions. A total of 19,372 (11,883 students) people participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey. Results: A total of 21.8% scored above the cut-off for depression and 23.7% for anxiety. Severity of symptoms was associated with the accumulation of risk factors, such as possible/confirmed infection for oneself or one’s family, female/other sex, students, having mental health problems, increased use of tobacco, increased use of alcohol, less exercise, losing one’s job, suffering economic impact and lower education. Conclusions: COVID-19 could have a negative association with public mental health, especially for certain risk groups. Future data-collection waves will provide further insight into the development of symptoms following the pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11322
Verónica Reyes-García ◽  
Alfonso Totosaus ◽  
Lourdes Pérez-Chabela ◽  
Zaida Nelly Juárez ◽  
Gabriel Abraham Cardoso-Ugarte ◽  

Tamarillo is an alternative for the consumption of food with high added value through various technological methodologies with nutritional quality and low cost, generating an economic impact on society. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of tamarillo red variety, as a source of bioactive compounds, to generate scientific information on the importance of its chemical composition and antioxidant and prebiotic properties. Different analyses were carried out: spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, NMR) of pulp flour and epicarp flour, antioxidant properties, prebiotic activity, and bromatological analysis. The spectra obtained by FTIR, UV, and NMR allowed the identification of chemical structures associated with the inulin-like functional groups. Pulp flour showed the highest prebiotic activity with values of 1.49 for Lactiacidbacillus. plantarum. Total phenolic compounds content in epicarp flour was 206.23 mg/100 g dry weight, with an acceptable antioxidant property (ABTS+ = 6.27 TEAC and DPPH= %AA of 91.74 at a concentration of 250.00 µg/mL, 131.26 of IC50 ascorbic acid). The results regarding tamarillo as a source of bioactive molecules with important physiological properties as an antioxidant and putative prebiotic indicate it is a good alternative for the formulation of functional foods.

Ali Elbeddini ◽  
Anthony To ◽  
Yasamin Tayefehchamani ◽  
Cindy Xin Wen

AbstractCancer patients are a complex and vulnerable population whose medication history is often extensive. Medication reconciliations in this population are especially essential, since medication discrepancies can lead to dire outcomes. This commentary aims to describe the significance of conducting medication reconciliations in this often-forgotten patient population. We discuss additional clinical interventions that can arise during this process as well. Medication reconciliations provide the opportunity to identify and prevent drug–drug and herb–drug interactions. They also provide an opportunity to appropriately adjust chemotherapy dosing according to renal and hepatic function. Finally, reconciling medications can also provide an opportunity to identify and deprescribe inappropriate medications. While clinical impact appears evident in this landscape, evidence of economic impact is lacking. As more cancer patients are prescribed a combination of oral chemotherapies, intravenous chemotherapies and non-anticancer medications, future studies should evaluate the advantages of conducting medication reconciliations in these patient populations across multiple care settings.

2021 ◽  
Tomasz Związek ◽  
Piotr Guzowski ◽  
Radosław Poniat ◽  
Maciej Tomasz Radomski ◽  
Monika Kozłowska-Szyc ◽  

Abstract. The period from around 1450 to 1550 in Europe is extremely interesting from the perspective of research on extreme weather events. It was a period of events that strongly influenced the societies and economies of the Old Continent. So far, the literature has been more focused on Western and Northern Europe, while as regards the region of Central Europe, the greatest attention was paid to the Czech Republic or Hungary. This article revolves around the Polish lands, which experienced their greatest economic boom in the 16th century. We consider whether and how the droughts of the decade from 1531 to 1540 might have affected the country’s economic development. We analyze a number of written sources which are the product of the treasury apparatus of the time (tax registers, data from water customs, tax exemptions, inventories of land estates etc.), but also information on fluctuations in product prices in the most important cities in this part of Europe. The work not only provides a detailed account of economic data, but also attempts to reflect on the relevance of linking information on fires in urban centres in the period characterized by weather extremes.

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