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Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 100608
David E. Velasquez ◽  
Keizra Mecklai ◽  
Sajen Plevyak ◽  
Brendan Eappen ◽  
Katherine A. Koh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 343-364
Elsie Gotora

Breast cancer, the most prevailing and only cancer considered universal among women worldwide. The rate of breast cancer per 100,000 women is higher in high income countries than in low income countries. However, mortality rates are high in low income countries due to the delay in seeking health care. A systematic literature review was carried out to document the health system implemented in Zimbabwe and its challenges that could be contributing to the delay in seeking health care of breast cancer among women in Zimbabwe. A content analysis was used to analyze articles, searching was done using the Boolean search strategy, articles from 2005 to 2021, which met the inclusion criteria were considered. Factors such as centralized services due to shortage of cancer specialists, lack of financial allocations on breast cancer health programs, shortage of screening and surgical equipment, lack of accurate data due to weak registration system and health management information system as well as poor governance and leadership have also been found to be challenges in the health system of Zimbabwe that may contribute to delay in seeking health care of breast cancer among women in Zimbabwe. Keywords: breast cancer, health system, health care, Zimbabwe

Sondous Sulaiman Wali ◽  
Mohammed Najm Abdullah

<span>Compression sensing approaches have been used extensively with the idea of overcoming the limitations of traditional sampling theory and applying the concept of pressure during the sensing procedure. Great efforts have been made to develop methods that would allow data to be sampled in compressed form using a much smaller number of samples. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have been developed by researchers through the creation of the network and the use of miniature equipment. Small structural factors, low power consumption, scalable data rates from kilobits per second to megabits per second, low cost, simple hardware deployment, and low processing power are needed to hold the wireless sensor through lightweight, implantable, and sharing communication tools wireless body area network. Thus, the proposed system provides a brief idea of the use of WBAN using IEEE 802.15.4 with compression sensing technologies. To build a health system that helps people maintain their health without going to the hospital and get more efficient energy through compression sensing, more efficient energy is obtained and thus helps the sensor battery last longer, and finally, the proposed health system will be more efficient energy, less energy-consuming, less expensive and more throughput.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Joanna Moncrieff

The present paper analyses the functions of the mental health system in relation to the economic organisation of society, using concepts derived from Marx’s work on political economy and building on previous critiques. The analysis starts from the position that mental health problems are not equivalent to physical, medical conditions and are more fruitfully viewed as problems of communities or societies. Using the example of the United Kingdom, it traces how a public mental health system evolved alongside capitalism in order to manage the problems posed by people whose behaviour was too chaotic, disruptive or inefficient to participate in a labour market based on exploitation. The system provided a mixture of care and control, and under recent, Neoliberal regimes, these functions have been increasingly transferred to the private sector and provided in a capitalistic manner. Welfare payments are also part of the system and support those less seriously affected but unable to work productively enough to generate surplus value and profit. The increased intensity and precarity of work under Neoliberalism has driven up benefit claims at the same time as the Neoliberal state is trying to reduce them. These social responses are legitimised by the idea that mental disorders are medical conditions, and this idea also has a hegemonic function by construing the adverse consequences of social and economic structures as individual problems, an approach that has been particularly important during the rise of Neoliberalism. The concept of mental illness has a strategic role in modern societies, therefore, enabling certain contentious social activities by obscuring their political nature, and diverting attention from the failings of the underlying economic system. The analysis suggests the medical view is driven by political imperatives rather than science and reveals the need for a system that is more transparent and democratic. While the mental health system has some consistent functions across all modern societies, this account highlights one of the endemic contradictions of the capitalist system in the way that it marginalises large groups of people by narrowing the opportunities to make an economic contribution to society.

2022 ◽  
Reinhard Schlickeiser ◽  
Martin Kroger

Adopting an early doubling time of three days for the rate of new infections with the omicron mutant the temporal evolution of the omicron wave in different countries is predicted. The predictions are based on the susceptible-infectious-recovered/removed (SIR) epidemic compartment model with a constant stationary ratio k=mu(t)/a(t) between the infection (a(t)) and recovery (mu(t)) rate. The fixed early doubling time then uniquely relates the initial infection rate a0 to the ratio k, which therefore determines the full temporal evolution of the omicron waves. For each country three scenarios (optimistic, pessimistic, intermediate) are considered and the resulting pandemic parameters are calculated. These include the total number of infected persons, the maximum rate of new infections, the peak time and the maximum 7-day incidence per 100000 persons. Among the considered European countries Denmark has the smallest omicron peak time and the recently observed saturation of the 7-day incidence value at 2478 is in excellent agreement with the prediction in the optimistic scenario. For Germany we predict peak times of the omicron wave ranging from 32 to 38 and 45 days after the start of the omicron wave in the optimistic, intermediate and pessimistic scenario, respectively, with corresponding maximum SDI values of 7090, 13263 and 28911, respectively. Adopting Jan 1st, 2022 as the starting date our predictions implies that the maximum of the omicron wave is reached between Feb 1 and Feb 15, 2022. Rather similar values are predicted for Switzerland. Due to an order of magnitude smaller omicron hospitalization rate, due to the high percentage of vaccinated and boostered population, the German health system can cope with maximum omicron SDI value of 2800 which is about a factor 2.5 smaller than the maximum omicron SDI value 7090 in the optimistic case. By either reducing the duration of intensive care during this period of maximum, and/or by making use of the nonuniform spread of the omicron wave across Germany, it seems that the German health system can barely cope with the omicron wave avoiding triage decisions. The reduced omicron hospitalization rate also causes significantly smaller mortality rates compared to the earlier mutants in Germany. In the optimistic scenario one obtains for the total number of fatalities 7445 and for the maximum death rate 418 per day which are about one order of magnitude smaller than the beta fatality rate and total number.

2022 ◽  
Vol 134 (2) ◽  
pp. 235-240
Joanne M. Conroy ◽  
David Lubarsky ◽  
Mark F. Newman

2022 ◽  
Laura Tripp ◽  
Meredith Vanstone ◽  
Carolyn Canfield ◽  
Myles Leslie ◽  
Mary Anne Levasseur ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Aazam Hosseinnejad ◽  
Maryam Rassouli ◽  
Simin Jahani ◽  
Nasrin Elahi ◽  
Shahram Molavynejad

Background: Accepting community health nursing in the primary care system of each country and focusing on creating a position for community health nurses is of significant importance. The aim of this study was to examine the stakeholders' perception of the requirements for establishing a position for community health nursing in the Iranian primary health care system.Methods: This qualitative study was done using 24 semi-structured interviews conducted from May 2020 to February 2021 in Iran. The participants were selected through purposive sampling and consisted of nursing policy makers, the policy makers of the Health Deputy of Ministry of Health, the managers and the authorities of universities of medical sciences all across the country, community health nursing faculty members, and community health nurses working in health care centers. After recording and transcribing the data, data analysis was performed in MAXQDA10 software, using Elo and Kyngas's directed content analysis approach and based on WHO's community health nursing role enhancement model. The statements for each main category were summarized in SWOT classification. To examine the trustworthiness of the data, Lincoln &amp; Guba's criteria were used.Results: By analyzing the interviews 6 main categories identified consist of creating a transparent framework for community health nursing practice, enhancing community health nursing education and training for practice in the primary health care system and community settings, seeking support, strengthening the cooperation and engagement among the key stakeholders of the primary health care system, changing the policies and the structure of the health system, and focusing on the deficiencies of the health system. Each main categories including the subcategories strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT).Conclusions: Based on the participants' opinions, focusing on the aforementioned dimensions is one of the requirements of developing a position for community health nursing within the Iranian PHC system. It seems that correct and proper implementation of these strategies in regard with the cultural context of society can help policymakers manage challenges that prevent the performance of community health nursing in the health system.

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