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Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 100608
David E. Velasquez ◽  
Keizra Mecklai ◽  
Sajen Plevyak ◽  
Brendan Eappen ◽  
Katherine A. Koh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Reinhard Schlickeiser ◽  
Martin Kroger

Adopting an early doubling time of three days for the rate of new infections with the omicron mutant the temporal evolution of the omicron wave in different countries is predicted. The predictions are based on the susceptible-infectious-recovered/removed (SIR) epidemic compartment model with a constant stationary ratio k=mu(t)/a(t) between the infection (a(t)) and recovery (mu(t)) rate. The fixed early doubling time then uniquely relates the initial infection rate a0 to the ratio k, which therefore determines the full temporal evolution of the omicron waves. For each country three scenarios (optimistic, pessimistic, intermediate) are considered and the resulting pandemic parameters are calculated. These include the total number of infected persons, the maximum rate of new infections, the peak time and the maximum 7-day incidence per 100000 persons. Among the considered European countries Denmark has the smallest omicron peak time and the recently observed saturation of the 7-day incidence value at 2478 is in excellent agreement with the prediction in the optimistic scenario. For Germany we predict peak times of the omicron wave ranging from 32 to 38 and 45 days after the start of the omicron wave in the optimistic, intermediate and pessimistic scenario, respectively, with corresponding maximum SDI values of 7090, 13263 and 28911, respectively. Adopting Jan 1st, 2022 as the starting date our predictions implies that the maximum of the omicron wave is reached between Feb 1 and Feb 15, 2022. Rather similar values are predicted for Switzerland. Due to an order of magnitude smaller omicron hospitalization rate, due to the high percentage of vaccinated and boostered population, the German health system can cope with maximum omicron SDI value of 2800 which is about a factor 2.5 smaller than the maximum omicron SDI value 7090 in the optimistic case. By either reducing the duration of intensive care during this period of maximum, and/or by making use of the nonuniform spread of the omicron wave across Germany, it seems that the German health system can barely cope with the omicron wave avoiding triage decisions. The reduced omicron hospitalization rate also causes significantly smaller mortality rates compared to the earlier mutants in Germany. In the optimistic scenario one obtains for the total number of fatalities 7445 and for the maximum death rate 418 per day which are about one order of magnitude smaller than the beta fatality rate and total number.

Lucía Cardona ◽  
Desirée Camus ◽  
Aroa Pons ◽  

This article focuses on how the COVID-19 pandemic affects Emergency Medical Assistant’s (EMA) mental health. In addition, it aims to define which psychological consequences it entails and if they have received postgraduate training on how to face the pandemic by the Health System or organizations that depend on it. This is a qualitative exploratory study of a phenomenological type where a semi- structured ad-hoc interview has been used for data collection, answered by EMA. The results show the psychological impact that COVID-19 has had on the work and personal life of these workers, the lack of psychological resources and the multiple psychological consequences developed as a result of the neglect of their mental health. EMA reaffirm the psychological challenge the COVID-19 pandemic means, creating situation of greater stress and anxiety than implied internal impediments for the job, family and friends. Therefore, they express the necessity for psychological support, being able to develop a diversity of psychological help resources that allow EMA to release the pychological oppression caused by the added stressors of the COVID-19 pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Dayane A. Padilha ◽  
Vilmar Benetti-Filho ◽  
Renato Simoes Moreira ◽  
Tatiany Soratto Teixeira Soratto ◽  
Guilherme Augusto Maia ◽  

COVID-19 has assumed significant and lasting proportions worldwide. Following initial cases in the Western mesoregion, the State of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil, was heavily affected as a whole by the pandemic in early 2021. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading patterns in the SC state through March 2020 to April 2021 using genomic surveillance. During this period, 23 distinct variants, including two VOCs (Beta and Gamma) were identified, among which, the Gamma and related lineages were predominant in the second pandemic wave within SC. However, a regionalization of P.1-like-II in the Western region was observed, concomitant to the increase in cases, mortality, and case fatality rate (CFR) index. This is the first evidence of the regionalization of the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the and highlight the importance of tracking variants, dispersion and their impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the public health system in Brazilian states.

2022 ◽  
Vol 134 (2) ◽  
pp. 235-240
Joanne M. Conroy ◽  
David Lubarsky ◽  
Mark F. Newman

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Quraish Sserwanja ◽  
Lilian Nuwabaine ◽  
Kassim Kamara ◽  
Milton W. Musaba

Abstract Background Within Sub-Saharan Africa, some countries still report unacceptably high rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, despite improvements in the utilisation of maternity care services. Postnatal care (PNC) is one of the recommended packages in the continuum of maternity care aimed at reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with PNC utilisation in Sierra Leone. Methods We used Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) 2019 data of 7326 women aged 15 to 49 years. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to determine the factors associated with PNC utilisation, using SPSS version 25. Results Out of 7326 women, 6625 (90.4, 95% CI: 89.9–91.2) had at least one PNC contact for their newborn, 6646 (90.7, 95% CI: 90.2–91.5) had a postnatal check after childbirth and 6274 (85.6, 95% CI: 85.0–86.6) had PNC for both their babies and themselves. Delivery by caesarean section (aOR 8.01, 95% CI: 3.37–19.07), having a visit by a health field worker (aOR 1.80, 95% CI: 1.46–2.20), having had eight or more ANC contacts (aOR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08–1.73), having tertiary education (aOR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.32–5.56) and having no big problems seeking permission to access healthcare (aOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.19–1.90) were associated with higher odds of PNC utilisation. On the other hand, being resident in the Northern (aOR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29–0.78) and Northwestern regions (aOR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36–0.80), belonging to a female headed household (aOR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.56–0.85) and being a working woman (aOR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52–0.84) were associated with lower odds of utilizing PNC. Conclusion Factors associated with utilisation of PNC services operate at individual, household, community and health system/policy levels. Some of them can be ameliorated by targeted government interventions to improve utilisation of PNC services.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. e0000165
Arianna Maever L. Amit ◽  
Veincent Christian F. Pepito ◽  
Lourdes Sumpaico-Tanchanco ◽  
Manuel M. Dayrit

Effective and safe COVID-19 vaccines have been developed at a rapid and unprecedented pace to control the spread of the virus, and prevent hospitalisations and deaths. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is challenged by vaccine hesitancy and anti-vaccination sentiments, a global shortage of vaccine supply, and inequitable vaccine distribution especially among low- and middle-income countries including the Philippines. In this paper, we explored vaccination narratives and challenges experienced and observed by Filipinos during the early vaccination period. We interviewed 35 individuals from a subsample of 1,599 survey respondents 18 years and older in the Philippines. The interviews were conducted in Filipino, Cebuano, and/or English via online platforms such as Zoom or via phone call. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated, and analysed using inductive content analysis. To highlight the complex reasons for delaying and/or refusing COVID-19 vaccines, we embedded our findings within the social ecological model. Our analysis showed that individual perceptions play a major role in the decision to vaccinate. Such perceptions are shaped by exposure to (mis)information amplified by the media, the community, and the health system. Social networks may either positively or negatively impact vaccination uptake, depending on their views on vaccines. Political issues contribute to vaccine brand hesitancy, resulting in vaccination delays and refusals. Perceptions about the inefficiency and inflexibility of the system also create additional barriers to the vaccine rollout in the country, especially among vulnerable and marginalised groups. Recognising and addressing concerns at all levels are needed to improve COVID-19 vaccination uptake and reach. Strengthening health literacy is a critical tool to combat misinformation that undermines vaccine confidence. Vaccination systems must also consider the needs of marginalised and vulnerable groups to ensure their access to vaccines. In all these efforts to improve vaccine uptake, governments will need to engage with communities to ‘co-create’ solutions.

2022 ◽  
Moses Mulumba ◽  
Kristien Roelens ◽  
Leslie London ◽  
Lorena Ruano

Abstract Introduction: For over forty years, community participation has been a central component of a well-functioning health system. Despite its important role there are many difficulties in defining and understanding community participation as part of governance. Through a case study of selected health unit management committees in Uganda, this paper demonstrates that these committees can be structures for community participation and vehicles for democratic governance in health systems that advance health equity. Guided by the theoretical underpinnings of deliberative democracy the paper evaluates the performance of health unit management committees as a mechanism for citizen participation in health systems. Methods: This paper uses a qualitative, case-study methodology. Through an in-depth look at the health unit management committees of Kiboga and Kyankwanzi in Uganda, the study considered these as examples of structures for democratic community participation in health system. The study undertook literature review on the theories of deliberative democracy and human rights principles, and this provided the theoretical underpinnings of the study. Findings: Our findings underscore that community participation in health systems through health unit management committees ought to be grounded in the principles of deliberative democracy. The core of deliberative democracy is considered to be authentic deliberation and consensus decision-making, which can happen in both direct and representative democracies, giving rise to the notions of populist and elitist deliberative democracy, respectively. As such, a balance needs to be struck between the competitive notions of democracy and the public health requirements of inclusive and direct participation of communities in decision making processes on matters that affect their health. Conclusions: Community participation in the health sector in Uganda hinges on health unit management committees at the lower service provision points. These HUMCs are also perceived as vehicles to strengthen health governance through realizing the right to health of the communities. However, these have been established without attention to investing in capacity building needed to enable them to exercise community voice in the health system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Aazam Hosseinnejad ◽  
Maryam Rassouli ◽  
Simin Jahani ◽  
Nasrin Elahi ◽  
Shahram Molavynejad

Background: Accepting community health nursing in the primary care system of each country and focusing on creating a position for community health nurses is of significant importance. The aim of this study was to examine the stakeholders' perception of the requirements for establishing a position for community health nursing in the Iranian primary health care system.Methods: This qualitative study was done using 24 semi-structured interviews conducted from May 2020 to February 2021 in Iran. The participants were selected through purposive sampling and consisted of nursing policy makers, the policy makers of the Health Deputy of Ministry of Health, the managers and the authorities of universities of medical sciences all across the country, community health nursing faculty members, and community health nurses working in health care centers. After recording and transcribing the data, data analysis was performed in MAXQDA10 software, using Elo and Kyngas's directed content analysis approach and based on WHO's community health nursing role enhancement model. The statements for each main category were summarized in SWOT classification. To examine the trustworthiness of the data, Lincoln & Guba's criteria were used.Results: By analyzing the interviews 6 main categories identified consist of creating a transparent framework for community health nursing practice, enhancing community health nursing education and training for practice in the primary health care system and community settings, seeking support, strengthening the cooperation and engagement among the key stakeholders of the primary health care system, changing the policies and the structure of the health system, and focusing on the deficiencies of the health system. Each main categories including the subcategories strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT).Conclusions: Based on the participants' opinions, focusing on the aforementioned dimensions is one of the requirements of developing a position for community health nursing within the Iranian PHC system. It seems that correct and proper implementation of these strategies in regard with the cultural context of society can help policymakers manage challenges that prevent the performance of community health nursing in the health system.

2022 ◽  
Laura Tripp ◽  
Meredith Vanstone ◽  
Carolyn Canfield ◽  
Myles Leslie ◽  
Mary Anne Levasseur ◽  

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