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2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 169-181
Author(s):  
Kelli Carneiro de Freitas Nakata ◽  
Luisa Daige Marques ◽  
Helder Cássio de Oliveira ◽  
Graciane Catarina Batista Magalhães ◽  
Ruberlei Godinho de Oliveira ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicole M. Gatto ◽  
Jerusha E Lee ◽  
Donatella Massai ◽  
Susanna Zamarripa ◽  
Bijan Sasaninia ◽  
...  

Information on vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers is needed as health professionals provide front line care to COVID-19 patients. We developed and implemented an anonymous internet-based cross-sectional survey with direct solicitation among employees of a safety net health system. Items queried demographic and health-related characteristics, experience with and knowledge of COVID-19, and determinants of decisions to vaccinate. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance groups (acceptors, hesitant, refusers) were defined; an adapted version of the WHO vaccine hesitancy scale was included. The survey demonstrated good reliability (Cronbachs alpha = 0.92 for vaccine hesitancy scale; 0.93 for determinants). General linear and logistic regression methods examined factors which were univariately associated with vaccine hesitancy and vaccine acceptance, respectively. Multivariable models were constructed with stepwise model-building procedures. Race/ethnicity, marital status, job classification, immunocompromised status, flu vaccination and childhood vaccination opinions independently predicted hesitancy scale scores. Gender, education, job classification and BMI independently predicted acceptance, hesitancy and refusal groups. Among hesitant employees, uncertainty was reflected in reports of motivating factors influencing their indecision. Despite a strong employee-support environment and job protection, respondents reported physical and mental health effects. Appreciation of varied reasons for refusing vaccination should lead to culturally sensitive interventions to increase vaccination rates in healthcare workers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Janaína Valentim ◽  
Eloiza da S. G. Oliveira ◽  
Ricardo A. de M. Valentim ◽  
Sara Dias-Trindade ◽  
Aline de Pinho Dias ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 472
Author(s):  
Susanna Davis Howard ◽  
Anish Agarwal ◽  
Kit Delgado ◽  
Edward Rodriguez-Caceres ◽  
Disha Joshi ◽  
...  

Background: Diversion of prescription opioids pills is a significant contributor to opioid misuse and the opioid epidemic. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and quantity of excess opioid pills among patients undergoing spine surgery. Further, we wanted to determine the frequency of appropriate opioid disposal. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients undergoing elective spine surgery within a multi-hospital, academic, urban university health system enrolled in a text-messaging program used to track postoperative opioid disposal. Patients who self-reported discontinuation of opioid use but with leftover pills were contacted via telephone and surveyed on opioid disposal. Results: Of the 291 patients who enrolled in the text-messaging program, 192 (66%) patients reported discontinuing opioids within 3 months of surgery. Although 76 (40%) reported excess opioid pills after cessation of use, only 47 (62%) participated in the telephone survey regarding opioid disposal. The median number of leftover pills among these 47 patients was 5 (5, 15) and 64% had not disposed of their prescription. Conclusion: Among the 47 telephone survey participants, a persistent gap remained in postoperative opioid excess and improper disposal. Future efforts must focus on initiatives to improve opioid disposal rates to reduce the quantity of opioids at risk for diversion and to reduce excess prescribing.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Woo Seung Lee ◽  
Junwon Lee ◽  
Jun Jeong Choi ◽  
Hyun Goo Kang ◽  
Sung Chul Lee ◽  
...  

AbstractUveal melanoma(UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. However, the incidence of UM in Asia is 10 to 20 times less than in Western populations. Therefore, for the first time, we report our whole exome sequencing (WES) data analysis to discover differences in the molecular features of Asian and Western UM, and to determine the disparities between the primary tumor before brachytherapy and enucleated samples after brachytherapy. WES of 19 samples (13 primary tumors, 5 enucleation samples after brachytherapy, and 1 liver metastasis) from 13 patients diagnosed with UM and treated between 2007 and 2019 at the Yonsei University Health System (YUHS) were analyzed using bioinformatics pipelines. We identified significantly altered genes in Asian UM and changes in mutational profiles before and after brachytherapy using various algorithms. GNAQ, BAP1, GNA11, SF3B1 and CYSLTR2 were significantly mutated in Asian UM, which is similar that reported frequently in previous Western-based UM studies. There were also similar copy number alterations (M3, 1p loss, 6p gain, 8q gain) in both groups. In paired comparisons of the same patients, DICER1 and LRP1B were distinctly mutated only in tumor samples obtained after brachytherapy using rare-variant association tests (P = 0.01, 0.01, respectively). The mutational profiles of Asian UM were generally similar to the data from previous Western-based studies. DICER1 and LRP1B were newly mutated genes with statistical significance in the regrowth samples after brachytherapy compared to the primary tumors, which may be related to resistance to brachytherapy.


2021 ◽  
pp. 144078332110435
Author(s):  
Bruce MZ Cohen ◽  
Rearna Hartmann

In analysing the increasing rates of female ‘mental illness’ in neoliberal society, this article draws on Marxist and feminist theory to conceptualise psychiatry as an institution of patriarchal and capitalist power, responsible for reinforcing traditional gender roles. Through outlining the changing circumstances of women, including the recent ‘feminisation’ of the labour force, we argue that there has been a more acute need for patriarchal capitalism to curtail the emancipatory potential of women through the heightened enforcement of sex-role ideology. This is demonstrated through a profile of ‘feminised’ mental disorders which have appeared in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) since 1980 – including premenstrual dysphoric disorder and female sexual interest/arousal disorder – which we argue purposely reproduce a discourse which restricts women’s advancements in paid employment while reinforcing the cliché of ‘respectable femininity’ as still primarily associated with the family and the home. We conclude the article by suggesting that, under the conditions of neoliberalism, the mental health system is becoming an increasingly powerful institution for the social control of gender.


Author(s):  
Simon Eckermann ◽  
Andrew R. Willan

Abstract Aim The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened individual and population wellbeing and strategies to jointly address these challenges within budget constraints are required. The aim of our research is to analyse evidence from the Active Lives South Australia study to consider the potential of physical activity (PA) health promotion strategies to be health-system cost saving while addressing wellbeing challenges. Methods The Active Lives South Australia study compares adult populations who meet and do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines (150+ minutes of weekly physical activity) with respect to their subjective wellbeing and health care utilisation. Subject and results Adults who met PA guidelines had better wellbeing across all aspects with and without adjustment for age, sex and income covariates. Analysis showed significant associations between meeting guidelines and lower probabilities of visiting and utilisation of GPs, specialist doctors, other health professionals, hospital inpatient admissions, outpatient clinic and emergency department visits, and an overall A$1760 lower cost per person annually. Controlling for age, sex and income, health expenditure for adults who met PA guidelines was significantly lower by A$1393 per person annually. That translated to A$804 million potential annual SA health system cost saving by shifting all adults to meeting PA guidelines. Conclusion There is significant potential for effective health promotion strategies to be net cost saving while addressing wellbeing challenges of COVID-19 recovery where they can shift target populations from not meeting to meeting PA guidelines.


Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1233
Author(s):  
Kristin Banek ◽  
Deborah D. DiLiberto ◽  
Emily L. Webb ◽  
Samuel Juana Smith ◽  
Daniel Chandramohan ◽  
...  

Medication adherence is an essential step in the malaria treatment cascade. We conducted a qualitative study embedded within a randomized controlled trial comparing the adherence to the recommended dosing of two artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to treat uncomplicated malaria in Freetown, Sierra Leone. This study explored the circumstances and factors that influenced caregiver adherence to the ACT prescribed for their child in the trial. In-depth interviews were conducted with 49 caregivers; all interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were coded and aggregated into themes, applying a thematic content approach. We identified four key factors that influenced optimal treatment adherence: (1) health system influences, (2) health services, (3) caregivers’ experiences with malaria illness and treatment, and (4) medication characteristics. Specifically, caregivers reported confidence in the health system as facilities were well maintained and care was free. They also felt that health workers provided quality care, leading them to trust the health workers and believe the test results. Ease of medication administration and perceived risk of side effects coupled with caregivers’ prior experience treating malaria influenced how medications were administered. To ensure ACTs achieve maximum effectiveness, consideration of these contextual factors and further development of child-friendly antimalarials are needed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Leandro Miletto Tonetto ◽  
Valentina Marques da Rosa ◽  
Priscila Brust-Renck ◽  
Megan Denham ◽  
Pedro Marques da Rosa ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Cancer care can negatively impact children’s subjective well-being. In this research, well-being refers to patients’ self-perception and encompasses their hospital and care delivery assessment. Playful strategies can stimulate treatment compliance and have been used to provide psychosocial support and health education; they can involve gamification, virtual reality, robotics, and healthcare environments. This study aims to identify how playfulness, whenever applicable, can be used as a strategy to improve the subjective well-being of pediatric cancer patients in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Methods Sixteen volunteers with experience in pediatric oncology participated in the study. They were physicians, psychologists, child life specialists, and design thinking professionals. They engaged in design thinking workshops to propose playful strategies to improve the well-being of pediatric cancer patients in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Data collection consisted of participatory observations. All activities were video recorded and analyzed through Thematic Analysis. The content generated by the volunteers was classified into two categories: impact of cancer care on children’s self-perception and children’s perceptions of the hospital and the care delivery. Results Volunteers developed strategies to help children deal with time at the hospital, hospital structure, and care delivery. Such strategies are not limited to using playfulness as a way of “having fun”; they privilege ludic interfaces, such as toys, to support psychosocial care and health education. They aim to address cancer and develop communication across families and staff in a humanized manner, educate families about the disease, and design children-friendly environments. Volunteers also generated strategies to help children cope with perceptions of death, pain, and their bodies. Such strategies aim to support understanding the meaning of life and death, comprehend pain beyond physicality, help re-signify cancer and children’s changing bodies, and give patients active voices during the treatment. Conclusions The paper proposes strategies that can improve the well-being of pediatric cancer patients in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Such strategies connect children’s experiences as inpatients and outpatients and may inform the implementation of similar projects in other developing countries.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mazen Baroudi ◽  
Isabel Goicolea ◽  
Anna-Karin Hurtig ◽  
Miguel San-Sebastian

Abstract Background Despite the importance of having trust in the health system, there is a paucity of research in this field in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the level of trust in the health system and to assess the factors associated with it in northern Sweden. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the four northern regions of Sweden. A total of 24 795 participants aged 18 to 84 years were involved in the study. A log-binomial regression was used to measure the association between sociodemographic factors and trust in the health system. Results Two thirds of the participants (68.5%) reported high trust in the health system. Women had lower prevalence of trust compared to men (PR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.94–0.98) while older participants had a higher trust compared to youth (PR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.06–1.16). Participants with lower level of education, those who experienced economic stress, those who were born outside Sweden and those living in small municipalities also had lower prevalence of trust in the health system. Conversely, lower income was associated with higher trust (PR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.04–1.12). Finally, a strong relationship between social capital and trust in the health system was also found. Conclusions Trust in the health system was moderately high in northern Sweden and strongly associated with sociodemographic and social capital factors. Trust is a complex phenomenon and a deeper exploration of the relation between trust in the health system and sociodemographic factors is needed.


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