body area network
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Suha Sahib Oleiwi ◽  
Ghassan N. Mohammed ◽  
Israa Al_Barazanchi

The wireless body area network (WBAN) has been proposed to offer a solution to the problem of population ageing, shortage in medical facilities and different chronic diseases. The development of this technology has been further fueled by the demand for real-time application for monitoring these cases in networks. The integrity of communication is constrained by the loss of packets during communication affecting the reliability of WBAN. Mitigating the loss of packets and ensuring the performance of the network is a challenging task that has sparked numerous studies over the years. The WBAN technology as a problem of reducing network lifetime; thus, in this paper, we utilize cooperative routing protocol (CRP) to improve package delivery via end-to-end latency and increase the length of the network lifetime. The end-to-end latency was used as a metric to determine the significance of CRP in WBAN routing protocols. The CRP increased the rate of transmission of packets to the sink and mitigate packet loss. The proposed solution has shown that the end-to-end delay in the WBAN is considerably reduced by applying the cooperative routing protocol. The CRP technique attained a delivery ratio of 0.8176 compared to 0.8118 when transmitting packets in WBAN.

Sondous Sulaiman Wali ◽  
Mohammed Najm Abdullah

<span>Compression sensing approaches have been used extensively with the idea of overcoming the limitations of traditional sampling theory and applying the concept of pressure during the sensing procedure. Great efforts have been made to develop methods that would allow data to be sampled in compressed form using a much smaller number of samples. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have been developed by researchers through the creation of the network and the use of miniature equipment. Small structural factors, low power consumption, scalable data rates from kilobits per second to megabits per second, low cost, simple hardware deployment, and low processing power are needed to hold the wireless sensor through lightweight, implantable, and sharing communication tools wireless body area network. Thus, the proposed system provides a brief idea of the use of WBAN using IEEE 802.15.4 with compression sensing technologies. To build a health system that helps people maintain their health without going to the hospital and get more efficient energy through compression sensing, more efficient energy is obtained and thus helps the sensor battery last longer, and finally, the proposed health system will be more efficient energy, less energy-consuming, less expensive and more throughput.</span>

Israa Al_Barazanchi ◽  
Yitong Niu ◽  
Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed ◽  
Wahidah Hashim ◽  
Ammar Ahmed Alkahtani ◽  

Recent technical developments in wi-fi networking, microelectronic integration and programming, sensors and the Internet have enabled us to create and enforce a range of new framework schemes to fulfil the necessities of healthcare-related wireless body area network (WBAN). WBAN sensors continually screen and measure patients’ indispensable signs and symptoms, and relay them to scientific monitoring for diagnosis. WBAN has a range of applications, the most necessary of which is to help patients suffering diseases to stay alive. The quality instance is the coronary heart implant sensor, whose video display unit monitors coronary heart sign and continuously transmits it. This setup eliminates the need for patients to visit the medical doctor frequently. Instead, they can take a seat at home and acquire an analysis and prescription for the disease. Today, a sizable effort is being made to increase low-power sensors and gadgets for utility in WBAN. A new framework scheme that addresses route loss in WBAN and discusses its penalties in depth is endorsed in this paper. The new framework scheme is applied to three case scenarios to obtain parameters by measuring vital information about the human body. On-body and intrabody conversation simulations are conducted. On-body conversation findings show that the route loss between transmitter and receiver rises with growing distance and frequency

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Juan Antonio Castro-García ◽  
Alberto Jesús Molina-Cantero ◽  
Isabel María Gómez-González ◽  
Sergio Lafuente-Arroyo ◽  
Manuel Merino-Monge

Detecting stress when performing physical activities is an interesting field that has received relatively little research interest to date. In this paper, we took a first step towards redressing this, through a comprehensive review and the design of a low-cost body area network (BAN) made of a set of wearables that allow physiological signals and human movements to be captured simultaneously. We used four different wearables: OpenBCI and three other open-hardware custom-made designs that communicate via bluetooth low energy (BLE) to an external computer—following the edge-computingconcept—hosting applications for data synchronization and storage. We obtained a large number of physiological signals (electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), breathing rate (BR), electrodermal activity (EDA), and skin temperature (ST)) with which we analyzed internal states in general, but with a focus on stress. The findings show the reliability and feasibility of the proposed body area network (BAN) according to battery lifetime (greater than 15 h), packet loss rate (0% for our custom-made designs), and signal quality (signal-noise ratio (SNR) of 9.8 dB for the ECG circuit, and 61.6 dB for the EDA). Moreover, we conducted a preliminary experiment to gauge the main ECG features for stress detection during rest.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012012
Avi Sharma ◽  
Pramod Kumar

Abstract A flexible microstrip antenna is a compact antenna that can be coupled with the skin. However, such antennas require to be coupled with an intermediate matching liquid medium which makes the antenna bulky, complicated, and expensive. Body area network devices are wearable wireless devices/sensors that are used to get the information of a patient’s health in terms of physiological changes irrespective of location. A flexible layer made of Polyethylene is chosen as the substrate and a copper patch is levied upon it. This substrate layer lies in between two adhesive layers (GIL GML 1000).In this paper, flexible antennas are designed and simulated for Body area networks (BANs). The S11 parameter, VSWR value, Gain, and the radiation pattern of the antennas are compared. The polyethylene substrate is highly flexible and lightweight; therefore it would be an ideal material to be used as the substrate of the required antenna.

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