structural factors
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Sondous Sulaiman Wali ◽  
Mohammed Najm Abdullah

<span>Compression sensing approaches have been used extensively with the idea of overcoming the limitations of traditional sampling theory and applying the concept of pressure during the sensing procedure. Great efforts have been made to develop methods that would allow data to be sampled in compressed form using a much smaller number of samples. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have been developed by researchers through the creation of the network and the use of miniature equipment. Small structural factors, low power consumption, scalable data rates from kilobits per second to megabits per second, low cost, simple hardware deployment, and low processing power are needed to hold the wireless sensor through lightweight, implantable, and sharing communication tools wireless body area network. Thus, the proposed system provides a brief idea of the use of WBAN using IEEE 802.15.4 with compression sensing technologies. To build a health system that helps people maintain their health without going to the hospital and get more efficient energy through compression sensing, more efficient energy is obtained and thus helps the sensor battery last longer, and finally, the proposed health system will be more efficient energy, less energy-consuming, less expensive and more throughput.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-06
Zulkarnain ◽  
Irma Indrayani

This study discusses the effect of China's economic revival on Indonesia's foreign policy orientation. Historically, the relationship between China and Indonesia, which had been severed in 1965 due to ideological conflicts and Indonesia's suspicion of China's support for the Indonesian communist party (PKI), has now been re-establish since the 1990s, which began with China's economic growth. Foreign policy is often caused by a combination of unexpected external forces with unfavorable structural factors. The continued stalemate in China-Indonesia bilateral relations has equally serious consequences for China. China's diplomatic failure against Indonesia has cost China, and that loss cannot be offset by the diplomatic gains generated by the opening of new relations with other ASEAN countries. This study tries to discuss this situation in depth using several approaches to find two variables that become the topic of this thesis: the rise of the Chinese economy and its influence on Indonesia's foreign policy. This research found that Indonesia's bilateral relations with China under the leadership of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono ran normatively and without significant fluctuations.

2022 ◽  
Raed Toghuj ◽  
Bashar AbuAlghanam

Throughout the past period, both the U.S and China further expanded their escalation actions (especially during the Trump and the Biden administrations). Within this context, the aim of this paper is to analyze the structural factors that steer the Chinese side to either keep escalating (potentially invading Taiwan), or to practice fluctuation of interests. By questioning the balance of power theorem between China and their adversaries (notably the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia). The literature about China's rise is voluminous, and consistently pinpoints key historical moments of increased tensions among the Western and Eastern fronts. Evidence points to significant variations within the Chinese modus operandi when it comes to use of force in territorial disputes. As it stands, our position is that barriers to direct conflict between the U.S and China are far too significant.

Mohammed Al-Musawi ◽  
Zinah M. Anwer

Asthma is one of the most common chronic, non-communicable diseases affecting children worldwide. The estimated prevalence of pediatric asthma in Iraq is 15.8%. Physiologic, inflammatory and structural factors contribute to the development of asthma. Assessment and monitoring of asthma control can be done by a validated children asthma control test (CACT). Management of asthma must address three components which are an appropriate management plan, the most appropriate medication if necessary, and the use of safe and effective medication. The management plan should consider patient counseling and education about the definition of asthma, signs, and symptoms, the pathophysiology of asthma, common triggers for asthma and how can avoid them, what are the rescue medication and the controller one, proper inhaler techniques, and how to monitor asthma control. Patient education accounts for 90% of success and this can be achieved by an active collaboration among health care providers. This is a prospective interventional study that aims at evaluating pharmacist counseling for asthmatic children. The study involved 105 participants whose consent was taken and underwent a face-to-face interview about asthma counseling and inhaler technique for those who use it. Ninety-two eligible participants remained. Their CACT was recorded at the first visit and then followed up weekly for one month either by phone or physical to assess asthma control. In the fourth week, a CACT was recorded and compared to the first one before intervention. There was a significant improvement in CACT after providing the counselling and weekly follow up.

2022 ◽  
pp. 75-84
Maria Zaitseva

The paper discusses the lithological and facial features of the terrigenous-carbonate (biohermic) ore-bearing geological formation of the Moryanikho-Merkurikhinskoye ore field (Yenisei Ridge), which hosts stratiform lead-zinc deposits in carbonate strata. Ore-hosting lithofacies and their paleostructural position are characterized. Based on the previous studies, as well as the author’s own materials obtained as a result of field work, the main favorable lithological, facial and structural factors for hosting Moryanikhinsky-type stratiform lead-zinc mineralization are defined: the presence of paleodepressions within the shelf zone; development of carbonate rocks – dolomites, stromatolite dolomites and limestones, which are biohermic structures on the slopes of paleo-uplifts; the presence of an admixture of tuffaceous material in terrigenous rock varieties. The influence of tectonic faults on the formation of ore deposits and the morphology of ore bodies is indicated. The main types of ores of the Moryanikho- Merkurikhinsky ore field, as well as their mineral composition are described. The paper discusses the main ore types, as well as their mineral composition typical of the Moryanikho-Merkurikhinskoye ore field. The largest and well-studied lead and zinc stratiform Moryanikhinskoye deposit and Merkurikhinskoye ore occurrence located within the ore field are briefly characterized. The Moryanikhinskoye deposit is a typical example for searching for stratiform deposits of lead and zinc in the carbonate strata of the Angara-Bolshepitskaya mineragenic zone, which is of practical interest in developing predictive prospecting models of deposits and improving the efficiency of prospecting.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Xiaohong Liu ◽  
Hui Yin ◽  
Xia Song ◽  
Zhongxing Zhang ◽  
Jun Li

Lignin is a natural renewable biomass resource with great potential for applications, while its development into high value-added molecules or materials is rare. The development of biomass lignin as potential nonviral gene delivery carriers was initiated by our group through the “grafting-from” approach. Firstly, the lignin was modified into macroinitiator using 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide. Then cationic polymer chains of poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) were grown from the lignin backbone using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to yield lignin-PDMAEMA graft copolymers (LPs) with branched structure. To gain a deep understanding of the relationship between the nonviral gene transfection efficiency of such copolymers and their structural and compositional factors, herein eight lignin-based macroinitiators with different modification degrees (MDs, from 3.0 to 100%) were synthesized. Initiated by them, a series of 20 LPs were synthesized with varied structural factors such as grafting degree (GD, which is equal to MD, determining the cationic chain number per lignin macromolecule), cationic chain length (represented by number of repeating DMAEMA units per grafted arm or degree of polymerization, DP) as well as the content of N element (N%) which is due to the grafted PDMAEMA chains and proportional to molecular weight of the LPs. The in vitro gene transfection capability of these graft copolymers was evaluated by luciferase assay in HeLa, COS7 and MDA-MB-231cell lines. Generally, the copolymers LP-12 (N% = 7.28, MD = 36.7%, DP = 13.6) and LP-14 (N% = 6.05, MD = 44.4%, DP = 5.5) showed good gene transfection capabilities in the cell lines tested. Overall, the performance of LP-12 was the best among all the LPs in the three cell lines at the N/P ratios from 10 to 30, which was usually several times higher than PEI standard. However, in MDA-MB-231 at N/P ratio of 30, LP-14 showed the best gene transfection performance among all the LPs. Its gene transfection efficiency was ca. 11 times higher than PEI standard at this N/P ratio. This work demonstrated that, although the content of N element (N%) which is due to the grafted PDMAEMA chains primarily determines the gene transfection efficiency of the LPs, it is not the only factor in explaining the performance of such copolymers with the branched structure. Structural factors of these copolymers such as grafting degree and cationic chain length could have a profound effect on the copolymer performance on gene transfection efficiency. Through carefully adjusting these factors, the gene transfection efficiency of the LPs could be modulated and optimized for different cell lines, which could make this new type of biomass-based biomaterial an attractive choice for various gene delivery applications.

2022 ◽  
Esa Karonen ◽  
Hannu Lehti ◽  
Jani Erola ◽  
Susan Kuivalainen ◽  
Pasi Moisio

How much it matters for your income development what generation you happen to be born? We answer this question by using registers of the total population, we study generational income inequality during 1970–2018 and, for men and women in Finland. We follow the income trajectories of the cohorts born in 1920–1983 over their adult life course and observed, how certain structural factors explain differences in income trajectories. Our study expands state-of-the-art knowledge, as previous research has often bypassed the question of how much generational income differences explains of populations total income inequalities and what factors may explain the different generational income trajectories. Results show that overall generational income differences explained quarter for women and 6 percent for men total income inequality. Each successive cohort until 1980s had a higher average income trajectory. However, generation born in the 1980s has been falling behind. For both men and women, age structure and education were the most important factors associated with income inequality. On contrary to previous findings on Nordic welfare state, our results also indicate that, generational income trajectories are affected by economic shocks.

Наталія Йосипівна Радіонова ◽  
Маргарита Іванівна Скрипник

The article attempts to substantiate the key approaches to the systematization of cost-driving factors from the enterprise cost management perspective (tactical and strategic) and offers a definition to a factor concept. The study presents the existing scientific approaches to the classification of cost drivers as well as an interpretation of cost-driving factors. Groups of structural factors within internal and external environment that affect enterprise costing have been identified along with revealing the character of such influence, i.e. whether they provide a direct indirect effect on the company expenditures. Given the tactical and strategic management objectives, the authors suggest systematization of all cost drivers into two groups. In particular, tactical management covers the following factors: output scale, product range, company cost management methods, qualification of personnel, and depreciation accrual. Within the scope of this study, strategically critical factors are represented by organizational business pattern of production, technology level, lack of brand awareness for domestic products, inflation rate, average salary range, low solvency, high costs for raw materials and energy, high tolls, import dependency, strong market competition, low demand, lack of government support, excessive tax burden, frequent changes in tax legislation, high loan interest rates, unfavourable investment environment, poor networking between domestic enterprises in complementary industries, small share of medium-sized businesses or small business alliances. In addition, in the frameworks of strategic cost management, the study offers to classify the cost drivers into the following groups: economic, market- or tax-based, financial and systemic. Apart from that, the relationship between individual cost-driving factors has been revealed. The findings argue that strategic cost management has a number of limitations associated with certain challenges to attain accuracy in forecasting change in factors for successive periods.

2022 ◽  
pp. 095207672110580
Bishoy Louis Zaki ◽  
Francesco Nicoli ◽  
Ellen Wayenberg ◽  
Bram Verschuere

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought forward myriad challenges to public policy, central of which is understanding the different contextual factors that can influence the effectiveness of policy responses across different systems. In this article, we explore how trust in government can influence the ability of COVID-19 policy responses to curb excess mortality during the pandemic. Our findings indicate that stringent policy responses play a central role in curbing excess mortality. They also indicate that such relationship is not only influenced by systematic and structural factors, but also by citizens’ trust in government. We leverage our findings to propose a set of recommendations for policymakers on how to enhance crisis policymaking and strengthen the designs of the widely used underlying policy learning processes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 76 (1) ◽  
Teal W. Benevides ◽  
Sha Tao ◽  
Alec Becker ◽  
Kate Verstreate ◽  
Lindsay Shea

Abstract Importance: Rates of occupational therapy service utilization among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) have not been explored in population-based samples. Objective: To describe occupational therapy services delivered to Medicaid-eligible persons younger than age 65 yr identified as having ASD, ID, or both and to evaluate demographic factors associated with occupational therapy service utilization in this population. Design: Retrospective, case–control, cohort study using claims records from Medicaid Analytic eXtract files (2009–2012). Setting: Data from all 50 states and Washington, DC. Participants: Beneficiaries identified as having ASD only, ASD+ID, or ID only who were younger than age 18 yr (N = 664,214) and ages 18–64 yr (N = 702,338). Outcomes and Measures: We analyzed Current Procedural Terminology® and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System procedure codes, Medicaid Statistical Information System type of service codes, and Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services provider specialty codes. Results: Only 3.7% to 6.3% of eligible adult beneficiaries received occupational therapy; in contrast, 20.5% to 24.2% of children received occupational therapy. Significant predictors of service use varied by group; however, differences by race–ethnicity, eligibility on the basis of poverty, and geographic location were observed. Among children, the most frequent billing code was for “therapeutic activities” (43%–60%); among adults, it was “community/work reintegration training” (29%–39%). Conclusions and Relevance: Billed procedure code patterns do not consistently reflect the unique occupational focus that occupational therapy providers deliver to people with developmental disabilities. Disparities in occupational therapy receipt warrant further attention to understand the social and structural factors affecting service delivery. What This Article Adds: Occupational therapy services paid for by Medicaid are used more frequently by children with ASD and ID than by adults with these diagnoses. Greater understanding of the intersectional factors that drive service delivery and disparities is needed.

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