medical conditions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102090
Amy M. Linabery ◽  
Michelle A. Roesler ◽  
Michaela Richardson ◽  
Erica D. Warlick ◽  
Phuong L. Nguyen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Joanna Moncrieff

The present paper analyses the functions of the mental health system in relation to the economic organisation of society, using concepts derived from Marx’s work on political economy and building on previous critiques. The analysis starts from the position that mental health problems are not equivalent to physical, medical conditions and are more fruitfully viewed as problems of communities or societies. Using the example of the United Kingdom, it traces how a public mental health system evolved alongside capitalism in order to manage the problems posed by people whose behaviour was too chaotic, disruptive or inefficient to participate in a labour market based on exploitation. The system provided a mixture of care and control, and under recent, Neoliberal regimes, these functions have been increasingly transferred to the private sector and provided in a capitalistic manner. Welfare payments are also part of the system and support those less seriously affected but unable to work productively enough to generate surplus value and profit. The increased intensity and precarity of work under Neoliberalism has driven up benefit claims at the same time as the Neoliberal state is trying to reduce them. These social responses are legitimised by the idea that mental disorders are medical conditions, and this idea also has a hegemonic function by construing the adverse consequences of social and economic structures as individual problems, an approach that has been particularly important during the rise of Neoliberalism. The concept of mental illness has a strategic role in modern societies, therefore, enabling certain contentious social activities by obscuring their political nature, and diverting attention from the failings of the underlying economic system. The analysis suggests the medical view is driven by political imperatives rather than science and reveals the need for a system that is more transparent and democratic. While the mental health system has some consistent functions across all modern societies, this account highlights one of the endemic contradictions of the capitalist system in the way that it marginalises large groups of people by narrowing the opportunities to make an economic contribution to society.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110633
Rima A. Mohammad ◽  
Cynthia T. Nguyen ◽  
Patrick G. Costello ◽  
Janelle O. Poyant ◽  
Siu Yan Amy Yeung ◽  

Background Currently, there is limited literature on the impact of the COVID-19 infection on medications and medical conditions in COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first multicenter study to describe the prevalence of new medical conditions and medication changes at hospital discharge in COVID-19 ICU survivors. Objective To determine the number of medical conditions and medications at hospital admission compared to at hospital discharge in COVID-19 ICU survivors. Methods Retrospective multicenter observational study (7 ICUs) evaluated new medical conditions and medication changes at hospital discharge in patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to an ICU between March 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021. Patient and hospital characteristics, baseline and hospital discharge medication and medical conditions, ICU and hospital length of stay, and Charlson comorbidity index were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe patient characteristics and number and type of medical conditions and medications. Paired t-test was used to compare number of medical conditions and medications from hospital discharge to admission. Results Of the 973 COVID-19 ICU survivors, 67.4% had at least one new medical condition and 88.2% had at least one medication change. Median number of medical conditions (increased from 3 to 4, P < .0001) and medications (increased from 5 to 8, P < .0001) increased from admission to discharge. Most common new medical conditions at discharge were pulmonary disorders, venous thromboembolism, psychiatric disorders, infection, and diabetes. Most common therapeutic categories associated with medication change were cardiology, gastroenterology, pain, hematology, and endocrinology. Conclusion and Relevance Our study found that the number of medical conditions and medications increased from hospital admission to discharge. Our results provide additional data to help guide providers on using targeted approaches to manage medications and diseases in COVID-19 ICU survivors after hospital discharge.

2022 ◽  
Tamar Krishnamurti ◽  
Mehret Birru Talabi ◽  
Lisa S Callegari ◽  
Traci M. Kazmerski ◽  
Sonya Borrero

UNSTRUCTURED The United States has abysmal reproductive health indices that, in part, reflect stark inequities experienced by people of color and those with preexisting medical conditions. The growth of “femtech,” or technology-based solutions to women’s health issues in the public and private sectors, is promising; yet these solutions are often geared towards health literate, socioeconomically privileged, and relatively healthy white cis-women. In this viewpoint, we propose a set of guiding principles for building technologies that proactively identifies and addresses these critical gaps in health care for people from socially and economically marginalized populations who are capable of pregnancy, as well as those with serious chronic medical conditions. These guiding principles require that such technologies: 1) include community stakeholders in the design, development, and deployment of the technology, 2) are grounded in person-centered frameworks, and 3) address health disparities as a strategy to advance health equity and improve health outcomes.

Neil S. Wenger ◽  
Annette L. Stanton ◽  
Ryan Baxter-King ◽  
Karen Sepucha ◽  
Lynn Vavreck ◽  

Abstract Background COVID-19 restrictions and fear dramatically changed the use of medical care. Understanding the magnitude of cancelled and postponed appointments and associated factors can help identify approaches to mitigate unmet need. Objective To determine the proportion of medical visits cancelled or postponed and for whom. We hypothesized that adults with serious medical conditions and those with higher anxiety, depressive symptoms, and avoidance-oriented coping would have more cancellations/postponements. Design Four nationally representative cross-sectional surveys conducted online in May, July, October, and December 2020. Participants 59,747 US adults who completed 15-min online surveys. 69% cooperation rate. Measures Physical and mental health visits and cancer screening cancelled or postponed over prior 2 months. Plan to cancel or postpone visits over the next 2 months. Relationship with demographics, medical conditions, local COVID-19 death rate, anxiety, depressive symptoms, coping, intolerance of uncertainty, and perceived COVID-19 risk. Key Results Of the 58% (N = 34,868) with a medical appointment during the 2 months before the survey, 64% had an appointment cancelled or postponed in May, decreasing to 37% in December. Of the 41% of respondents with scheduled cancer screening, 20% cancelled/postponed, which was stable May to December. People with more medical conditions were more likely to cancel or postpone medical visits (OR 1.19 per condition, 95% CI 1.16, 1.22) and cancer screening (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.15, 1.24). Race, ethnicity, and income had weak associations with cancelled/postponed visits, local death rate was unrelated, but anxiety and depressive symptoms were strongly related to cancellations, and this grew between May and December. Conclusions Cancelled medical care and cancer screening were more common among persons with medical conditions, anxiety and depression, even after accounting for COVID-19 deaths. Outreach and support to ensure that patients are not avoiding needed care due to anxiety, depression and inaccurate perceptions of risk will be important.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Caroline Brandl ◽  
Martina E. Zimmermann ◽  
Felix Günther ◽  
Alexander Dietl ◽  
Helmut Küchenhoff ◽  

Abstract Background Containment measures in the COVID-19 pandemic protected individuals at high risk, particularly individuals at old age, but little is known about how these measures affected health-related behavior of old aged individuals. We aimed to investigate the impact of the spring 2020 lockdown in Germany on healthcare-seeking and health-related lifestyle in the old aged and to identify susceptible subgroups. Methods We conducted a follow-up survey among the pre-pandemically well-characterized participants of our AugUR cohort study, residents in/around Regensburg aged 70+ years and relatively mobile. A self-completion questionnaire on current behavior, perceived changes, and SARS-Cov-2 infection was mailed in May 2020, shortly before contact restrictions ended. Pre-pandemic lifestyle and medical conditions were derived from previous study center visits. Results Among 1850 survey participants (73–98 years; net-response 89%), 74% were at increased risk for severe COVID-19 according to medical conditions; four participants reported SARS-CoV-2 infection (0.2%). Participants reported changes in behavior: 29% refrained from medical appointments, 14% increased TV consumption, 26% reported less physical activity, but no systematic increase of smoking or alcohol consumption. When comparing during- and pre-lockdown reports of lifestyle within participant, we found the same pattern as for the reported perceived changes. Women and the more educated were more susceptible to changes. Worse QOL was perceived by 38%. Conclusions Our data suggest that the spring 2020 lockdown did not affect the lifestyle of a majority of the mobile old aged individuals, but the substantial proportions with decreased physical activity and healthcare-seeking are markers of collateral damage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-16
Anne Holdoway ◽  
Hilary Franklin

This article outlines the updated guidelines produced by the Managing Adult Malnutrition in the Community panel, which aims to assist and support health and social care professionals working in the community to identify and manage malnutrition, particularly that related to ageing, disease and long-term medical conditions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 131-153
Jesmond Attard

This chapter introduces the field of advanced technology within the orthotics and prosthetics profession, a healthcare profession that combines technology and engineering science with medical and health science to produce medical devices (orthoses and prostheses) to treat medical conditions that cause physical dysfunction. The chapter sets the background to the ethical dilemmas that are encountered within the field, which technologically advanced devices cause such dilemmas and why, and then discusses the ethical dilemmas as encountered by the three stakeholders within the profession, namely the manufacturers/innovators, the prosthetic and orthotic practitioners, and the users of the devices themselves, the patients. In conclusion, the chapter looks at some solutions and recommendations to overcome or at least reduce these dilemmas.

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