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Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuzhou Huang ◽  
Danrong Jing ◽  
Juan Su ◽  
Zhijun Huang ◽  
Han Liu ◽  
...  

Purpose: Night shift work is common in the current working environment and is a risk factor for many diseases. The study aimed to explore the relationship between night shift work with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), and the modification effect of circadian dysfunction on it.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese workers. Exposure was measured by night work history and duration. Circadian dysfunction was characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). The diagnosis of CSU was made by dermatologists who were investigating on the spot. The effect size was expressed as odds ratios (ORs).Results: A total of 8,057 participants were recruited, and 7,411 (92%) with complete information were included in the final analyses. The prevalence rates of CSU for workers without night shift and those with night shift history were 0.73 and 1.28%, respectively. Compared with workers who never worked night shifts, the risk of CSU increased with the length of night shift work: OR = 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78–3.06) for duration <5 years and OR = 1.91 (95% CI: 1.12–3.26) for duration ≥5 years. EDS s EDS has been shown to modify this combination. Among workers without EDS, there was no association between night shift and CSU (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.49–1.79). Whereas, in participants with EDS, the correlation was significant (OR = 3.58; 95% CI: 1.14–11.20). However, the effect modification by sleep disturbance was not observed.Conclusions: Night shift work is a risk factor for CSU, and there is a dose-response relationship between night shift work hours and the risk of CSU. This connection may be modified by circadian dysfunction.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Amanda Stafford McRell ◽  
Betty L. Wilson ◽  
Sue E. Levkoff

Increasing the number of racially and ethnically underrepresented students who pursue scientific graduate studies in programs focusing on science and aging offers an opportunity to increase the number of aging specialists while simultaneously promoting diversity in the research labor market and supporting new ideas. This case study aims to better understand how students participating in an academic preparatory program experience a writing class contextualized within (1) students' writing background and (2) students' future ambitions related to science and aging. The individually-tailored writing class was taught as a critical component of a comprehensive educational program that targets underrepresented racial and ethnic minority undergraduate students who are interested in pursuing scientific graduate studies in fields related to aging. The researchers conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with students (n = 4) enrolled in the 24-month fellowship training program, which included participation in the writing course during the summer prior to their senior year of undergraduate education. All participants were young adult college students who identified as Black or African American and female. Using thematic coding, statements about professional writing skills were divided into four primary themes: (1) prior experiences, (2) class experiences, (3) future goals and ambitions, and (4) structural considerations. These themes suggest potential implications for effective interventions aimed to advance the writing skills and academic and career readiness of racially and ethnically diverse students entering fields of science and aging.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel F. Escobar ◽  
Pablo Díaz ◽  
Diego Díaz-Dinamarca ◽  
Rodrigo Puentes ◽  
Pedro Alarcón ◽  
...  

In January 2021, the Chilean city of Concepción experienced a second wave of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) while in early April 2021, the entire country faced the same situation. This outbreak generated the need to modify and validate a method for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in saliva, thereby expanding the capacity and versatility of testing for COVID-19. This study was conducted in February 2021 in the Chilean city of Concepción during which time, the town was under total quarantine. The study participants were mostly symptomatic (87.4%), not hospitalized, and attended care centers because of their health status rather than being asked by the researchers. People coming to the health center in Concepción to be tested for COVID-19 (via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) from a specimen of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) were then invited to participate in this study. A total of 131 participants agreed to sign an informed consent and to provide saliva and NPS specimens to validate a method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and statistical analysis of the cycle threshold (Ct) values from the RT-PCR. Calculations pertaining to the 127 participants who were ultimately included in the analysis showed sensitivity and specificity at 94.34% (95% CI: 84.34–98.82%) and 98.65% (95% CI: 92.70–99.97%), respectively. The saliva specimen showed a performance comparable to NPS as demonstrated by the diagnostic parameters. This RT-PCR method from the saliva specimen is a highly sensitive and specific alternative compared to the reference methodology, which uses the NPS specimen. This modified and validated method is intended for use in the in vitro diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, which provides health authorities in Chile and local laboratories with a real testing alternative to RT-PCR from NPS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Caio Fábio Schlechta Portella ◽  
Ricardo Ghelman ◽  
Veronica Abdala ◽  
Mariana Cabral Schveitzer ◽  
Rui Ferreira Afonso

Study Basis: This evidence map presents a summary of studies that addressed the effects of meditation on various clinical and health conditions. Meditation is a contemplative practice that has been used for the promotion of health, and the treatment of different conditions.Method: The study is based on the search of four electronic databases for the period 1994-November 2019 and includes systematic reviews, meta-analyses, meta-syntheses, and integrative reviews. 3iE evidence gap map was the methodology of choice, and AMSTAR 2 was used for the analyses. Tableau was used to graphically display the confidence level, number of reviews, health outcomes, and intervention effects.Results: This map encompasses 191 studies, with Mindfulness being the key word that retrieved the highest number of results. Several meditation techniques were evaluated in different contexts, and the confidence levels of 22 studies were high, 84 were moderate, and 82 were low. Two 2 meta-syntheses and 1 integrative review were also included. Most of the studies reported positive effects and a beneficial potential of the practice of meditation. Health outcomes were divided into five groups out of which mental health and vitality, and well-being and quality of life stood out with the largest number of studies.Conclusions: Meditation has been applied in different areas. This Evidence Map intends to be an easy visual tool to access valuable evidence-based information on this complementary therapy for patients, health professionals, and managers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alicia K. Matthews ◽  
Karriem S. Watson ◽  
Cherdsak Duang ◽  
Alana Steffen ◽  
Robert Winn

Background: Smoking rates among low-income patients are double those of the general population. Access to health care is an essential social determinant of health. Federally qualified health care centers (FQHC) are government-supported and community-based centers to increase access to health care for non-insured and underinsured patients. However, barriers to implementation impact adherence and sustainability of evidence-based smoking cessation within FQHC settings. To address this implementation barrier, our multi-disciplinary team proposes Mi QUIT CARE (Mile Square QUITCommunity-Access-Referral-Expansion) to establish the acceptability, feasibility, and capacity of an FQHC system to deliver an evidence-based and multi-level intervention to increase patient engagement with a state tobacco quitline.Methods: A mixed-method approach, rooted in an implementation science framework of RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance), will be used in this hybrid effectiveness-implementation design. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of a novel delivery system (patient portal) for increasing access to smoking cessation treatment. In preparation for a future randomized clinical trial of Mi QUIT CARE, we will conduct the following developmental research: (1) Examine the burden of tobacco among patient populations served by our partner FQHC, (2) Evaluate among FQHC patients and health care providers, knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to smoking cessation and our intervention components, (3) Evaluate the use of tailored communication strategies and patient navigation to increase patient portal uptake among patients, and (4) To test the acceptability, feasibility, and capacity of the partner FQHC to deliver Mi QUIT CARE.Discussion: This study provides a model for developing and implementing smoking and other health promotion interventions for low-income patients delivered via patient health portals. If successful, the intervention has important implications for addressing a critical social determinant of cancer and other tobacco-related morbidities.Trial Registration: U.S. National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials, NCT04827420, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04827420.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Atsuyoshi Ishizumi ◽  
Roberta Sutton ◽  
Anthony Mansaray ◽  
Lauren Parmley ◽  
Oliver Eleeza ◽  
...  

Introduction: Community health workers (CHWs) play an integral role in Sierra Leone's health systems strengthening efforts. Our goal was to understand CHWs' experiences of providing immunization and malaria prevention services in urban settings and explore opportunities to optimize their contributions to these services.Methods: In 2018, we conducted an exploratory qualitative assessment in the Western Area Urban district, which covers most of the capital city of Freetown. We purposively selected diverse health facilities (i.e., type, ownership, setting) and recruited CHWs through their supervisors. We conducted eight focus group discussions (FGD) with CHWs, which were audio-recorded. The topics explored included participants' background, responsibilities and priorities of urban CHWs, sources of motivation at work, barriers to CHWs' immunization and malaria prevention activities, and strategies used to address these barriers. The local research team transcribed and translated FGDs into English; then we used qualitative content analysis to identify themes.Results: Four themes emerged from the qualitative content analysis: (1) pride, compassion, recognition, and personal benefits are important motivating factors to keep working as CHWs; (2) diverse health responsibilities and competing priorities result in overburdening of CHWs; (3) health system- and community-level barriers negatively affect CHWs' activities and motivation; (4) CHWs use context-specific strategies to address challenges in their work but require further support.Conclusion: Focused support for CHWs is needed to optimize their contributions to immunization and malaria prevention activities. Such interventions should be coupled with systems-level efforts to address the structural barriers that negatively affect CHWs' overall work and motivation, such as the shortage of work supplies and the lack of promised financial support.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Natalie J. Sabik

Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that was developed to address the ways in which people's experiences are shaped based on their intersecting social identities (e. g., race/ethnicity, gender, class, age, etc.). This approach focuses on the importance of considering power, privilege, and social structures in relation to people's access to resources, experiences of discrimination, and interpersonal interactions. An intersectional approach in public health is critical for research and teaching to illuminate health disparities and the underlying structures that create and maintain disparities. While scholars have focused primarily on how to integrate an intersectional perspective into research methods, there is a need for a clear framework for applying intersectionality effectively in public health teaching. The Intersectionality Toolbox (ITB) is a framework developed from a variety of interdisciplinary resources designed to apply an intersectional perspective to public health issues. This article describes the Intersectionality Toolbox and details how it can be utilized in public health classes. Following a course where the ITB was implemented, student feedback was sought to determine the appropriateness and effectiveness of the design, and metrics were aligned with the learning outcomes. The ITB was refined and retained to integrate into courses and assignments focused on teaching about the intersecting nature of the social determinants of health.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anton Pak ◽  
Oyelola A. Adegboye ◽  
Emma S. McBryde
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wei Wang ◽  
Lanping Yu ◽  
Wenwen Hao ◽  
Fusen Zhang ◽  
Meijie Jiang ◽  
...  

The extensive use of antibiotics has caused antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli and gradual expands it into a worldwide problem. The resistant E. coli could be transmitted to humans through animal products, thereby creating a problem for bacterial treatment in humans and resulting in a public health issue. This study aims to investigate the molecular typing and drug resistance of swine and human origin E. coli within the same prefecture-level cities of Shandong Province and the potential risk of E. coli on public health. The drug sensitivity results indicated that tetracycline (TE) (97.17%) is a major antibiotic with high drug resistance in 106 swine origin E. coli. There was a significant difference in the drug-resistant genotypes between the two sources, of which the blaTEM positive rate was the highest in the genera of β-lactams (99% in swines and 100% in humans). Among the 146 E. coli isolates, 98 (91.51% swine origin) and 31 (77.5% human origin) isolates were simultaneously resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics, respectively. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) results indicate that the 106 swine origin E. coli isolates are divided into 25 STs with ST1258, ST361, and ST10 being the dominant sequence analysis typing strains. There were 19 MLST genotypes in 40 strains of human E. coli from Tai'an, Shandong Province, with ST1193, ST73, ST648, ST131, ST10, and ST1668 being the dominant strains. Moreover, the cluster analysis showed that CCl0 and CC23 were the common clonal complexes (CCs) from the two sources. Our results provide a theoretical basis for guiding the rational use of antibiotics and preventing the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, and also provide epidemiological data for the risk analysis of foodborne bacteria and antimicrobial resistance in swine farms in Shandong Province.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Inayat Ali ◽  
Salma Sadique ◽  
Shahbaz Ali

This study aimed to describe the dealings of 20 biomedical doctors with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Focusing on physicians from three different hospitals, we describe their challenges, emotions, and views concerning the pandemic. Many regarded the virus from a biomedical standpoint. Yet some also perceived it as a “tool of a proxy war” and a “plot,” without giving agency to anyone for that “plot.” Furthermore, these care providers faced a great fear of infection and an even greater fear of transmitting the virus to their families and friends. A few also feared stigmatization as viral carriers. Whether they experienced fear or not, all of our physician interlocutors emphasized their sense of responsibility to “serve humanity,” yet some also expressed a strong belief in the inevitability of the will of Allah. Some were satisfied with the role of the government in containing the virus, while others expressed concerns and felt that the government should be doing much more. All expressed confidence in the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), viewing it as an effective buffer against viral contagion. We conclude with a call for further research especially ethnographic studies on dealings of physicians with COVID-19 across Pakistan as frontline care providers.


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