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Author(s):  
H. A. Adde ◽  
A. J. van Duinen ◽  
L. M. Sherman ◽  
B. C. Andrews ◽  
Ø. Salvesen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Any health care system that strives to deliver good health and well-being to its population relies on a trained workforce. The aim of this study was to enumerate surgical provider density, describe operative productivity and assess the association between key surgical system characteristics and surgical provider productivity in Liberia. Methods A nationwide survey of operation theatre logbooks, available human resources and facility infrastructure was conducted in 2018. Surgical providers were counted, and their productivity was calculated based on operative numbers and full-time equivalent positions. Results A total of 286 surgical providers were counted, of whom 67 were accredited specialists. This translated into a national density of 1.6 specialist providers per 100,000 population. Non-specialist physicians performed 58.3 percent (3607 of 6188) of all operations. Overall, surgical providers performed a median of 1.0 (IQR 0.5–2.7) operation per week, and there were large disparities in operative productivity within the workforce. Most operations (5483 of 6188) were categorized as essential, and each surgical provider performed a median of 2.0 (IQR 1.0–5.0) different types of essential procedures. Surgical providers who performed 7–14 different types of essential procedures were more than eight times as productive as providers who performed 0–1 essential procedure (operative productivity ratio = 8.66, 95% CI 6.27–11.97, P < 0.001). Conclusion The Liberian health care system struggles with an alarming combination of few surgical providers and low provider productivity. Disaggregated data can provide a high-resolution picture of local challenges that can lead to local solutions.


Author(s):  
Niraj Kale ◽  
Sanket Rathod ◽  
Snehal More ◽  
Namdeo Shinde

Wrightia tinctoria is a medium sized ever green tree grows up to 18 m tall and to 20 cm which produces milky white latex from the leaves which is directly applied on inflammation. Since from ancient period this plant constantly been used as a source of medicine. This plant shows a very important component of the health care system in India. In ayurvedic system the drug activity of W.tinctoria is defined as titka, kashaya, rooksha, sita and katu. Various parts of this plant such as stem bark, leaves, flowers also seed have been known to have medicinal assets. Phytochemical studies have shown that it contains alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, phenolics, carbohydrates, lipids etc. Wrightia tinctoria has been allotted to have good analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antiulcer, antidysentric, antidiabetic, anticancer, antipyretic activities as well as active in the treatment of psoriasis. The present review primed to describe the botanical classification, vernacular names, species, Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Properties and pharmacological activities of the plant Wrightia tinctoria.


2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (3) ◽  
pp. 245
Author(s):  
P. Kandanearachchi ◽  
B. J. B. Alagoda ◽  
H. D. K. C. Hapuachchige ◽  
R. Wijesinghe ◽  
Y. M. T. Y. Wijeratne ◽  
...  

BioDrugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bharati Bhardwaja ◽  
Shilpa Klocke ◽  
Ekim Ekinci ◽  
Adam Jackson ◽  
Scott Kono ◽  
...  

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1197
Author(s):  
Yolima Cossio ◽  
Marta-Beatriz Aller ◽  
Maria José Abadias ◽  
Jose-Manuel Domínguez ◽  
Maria-Soledad Romea ◽  
...  

Background: Hospitals have constituted the limiting resource of the healthcare systems for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic. As the pandemic progressed, knowledge of the disease improved, and healthcare systems were expected to be more adapted to provide a more efficient response. The objective of this research was to compare the flow of COVID-19 patients in emergency rooms and hospital wards, between the pandemic's first and second waves at the University Hospital of Vall d’Hebron (Barcelona, Spain), and to compare the profiles, severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients between the two waves. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of COVID-19 patients attending the hospital from February 24 to April 26, 2020 (first wave) and from July 24, 2020, to May 18, 2021 (second wave) was carried out. We analysed the data of the electronic medical records on patient demographics, comorbidity, severity, and mortality. Results: The daily number of COVID-19 patients entering the emergency rooms (ER) dropped by 65% during the second wave compared to the first wave. During the second wave, patients entering the ER were significantly younger (61 against 63 years old p<0.001) and less severely affected (39% against 48% with a triage level of resuscitation or emergency; p<0.001). ER mortality declined during the second wave (1% against 2%; p<0.000). The daily number of hospitalised COVID-19 patients dropped by 75% during the second wave. Those hospitalised during the second wave were more severely affected (20% against 10%; p<0.001) and were referred to the intensive care unit (ICU) more frequently (21% against 15%; p<0.001). Inpatient mortality showed no significant difference between the two waves. Conclusions: Changes in the flow, severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients entering this tertiary hospital during the two waves may reflect a better adaptation of the health care system and the improvement of knowledge on the disease.


Author(s):  
Felix Holl ◽  
Jennifer Kircher ◽  
Walter J. Swoboda ◽  
Johannes Schobel

In the face of demographic change and constantly increasing health care costs, health care system decision-makers face ever greater challenges. Mobile health applications (mHealth apps) have the potential to combat this trend. However, in order to integrate mHealth apps into care structures, an evaluation of such apps is needed. In this paper, we focus on the criteria and methods of evaluating mHealth apps for cardiovascular disease and the implications for developing a widely applicable evaluation framework for mHealth interventions. Our aim is to derive substantiated patterns and starting points for future research by conducting a quasi-systematic scoping review of relevant peer-reviewed literature published in English or German between 2000 and 2021. We screened 4066 articles and identified n = 38 studies that met our inclusion criteria. The results of the data derived from these studies show that usability, motivation, and user experience were evaluated primarily using standardized questionnaires. Usage protocols and clinical outcomes were assessed primarily via laboratory diagnostics and quality-of-life questionnaires, and cost effectiveness was tested primarily based on economic measures. Based on these findings, we propose important considerations and elements for the development of a common evaluation framework for professional mHealth apps, including study designs, data collection tools, and perspectives.


mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shirin Strohmeier ◽  
Fatima Amanat ◽  
Xueyong Zhu ◽  
Meagan McMahon ◽  
Meagan E. Deming ◽  
...  

Influenza virus infections remain a high risk to human health, causing up to 650,000 deaths worldwide every year, with an enormous burden on the health care system. Since currently available seasonal vaccines are only partially effective and often mismatched to the circulating strains, a broader protective influenza virus vaccine is needed.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Veronica Adams

<p>Pharmaceuticals have become synonymous with ideas of health and wellbeing. The consumption of pharmaceuticals has become the gateway to restoring, maintaining, or improving one’s health; in turn becoming deeply entrenched in everyday life as treatment for disease. Given the use of pharmaceuticals for treatment, the question needs to be asked how individuals are able to obtain the medication they need. There is little anthropological literature concerning how patients negotiate and lobby for access to pharmaceutical treatment in New Zealand, particularly so in the face of Pharmac as the government entity which heavily regulates pharmaceuticals. Through conducting interviews with nine participants who are patients, general practitioners, and employees of Pharmac, I argue that in utilising policies such as cost utility analysis Pharmac prioritise which medicines are publically funded, and in doing this determine how health is conceived and calculated within the New Zealand health care system. In determining which medicines should be funded the state is making judgements over which lives are prioritised, and, in turn, who is left to die. I suggest that in the face of being denied access to life-saving drugs patients become mobilised through seeking access to experimental therapies via pharmaceutical companies. By taking these experimental treatments we come to understand that experimentation and risk have become crucial in patients fight for life against the prognosis of an early death from disease.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Veronica Adams

<p>Pharmaceuticals have become synonymous with ideas of health and wellbeing. The consumption of pharmaceuticals has become the gateway to restoring, maintaining, or improving one’s health; in turn becoming deeply entrenched in everyday life as treatment for disease. Given the use of pharmaceuticals for treatment, the question needs to be asked how individuals are able to obtain the medication they need. There is little anthropological literature concerning how patients negotiate and lobby for access to pharmaceutical treatment in New Zealand, particularly so in the face of Pharmac as the government entity which heavily regulates pharmaceuticals. Through conducting interviews with nine participants who are patients, general practitioners, and employees of Pharmac, I argue that in utilising policies such as cost utility analysis Pharmac prioritise which medicines are publically funded, and in doing this determine how health is conceived and calculated within the New Zealand health care system. In determining which medicines should be funded the state is making judgements over which lives are prioritised, and, in turn, who is left to die. I suggest that in the face of being denied access to life-saving drugs patients become mobilised through seeking access to experimental therapies via pharmaceutical companies. By taking these experimental treatments we come to understand that experimentation and risk have become crucial in patients fight for life against the prognosis of an early death from disease.</p>


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