airway obstruction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Yusuf Shieba ◽  
Mahmoud Khairy ◽  
Mohamed Elzouk ◽  
Albaraa Ali Mansour

Abstract Background Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a rare non-neoplastic inflammatory tumor and usually presents as a painless, rapidly growing subcutaneous soft tissue mass. The head and neck are relatively common locations for nodular fasciitis, particularly in children. NF in the trachea is rare and may evolve to a fatal condition, especially due to its rapidly growing nature that can cause life-threatening tracheal obstruction. Case presentation We report the case of a 5-year-old child with NF in the trachea and subtotal tracheal obstruction. Bronchoscopy and biopsy proved the diagnosis, and bronchoscopic excision of the tumor was performed. Conclusions NF is a rare airway tumor, occurring mostly in adults, and may presenting with pneumonia-like symptoms. Early detection of the lesion is essential to avoid life-threatening airway obstruction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e49411125272
Lohana Maylane Aquino Correia de Lima ◽  
Mayana Aquino Correia de Lima ◽  
Rayana Cruz Correia de Lima ◽  
Milena Mello Varela Ayres de Melo Pinheiro ◽  
Rodrigo Henrique Mello Varela Ayres de Melo ◽  

A via aérea humana é um sistema composto de importantes estruturas anatômicas que protegem e mantêm a permeabilidade. Este trabalho objetiva apresentar as manobras de desobstrução e acesso às vias aéreas em situações de emergência. Realizou-se uma revisão de literatura com busca nas bases de dados Scielo e Embase. Para isto, utilizou-se descritores "Airway Obstruction" e "Emergency" e “Dentistry” com 40 artigos triados. Nas manobras básicas, a manobra de Heimlich consiste na compressão infradiafragmática em “L”. A manobra de Jaw Thrust é caracterizada pela protrusão da mandíbula, enquanto que Chin Lift realiza-se a hiperextensão cervical e elevação mentual. Nas manobras avançadas a Intubação Endotraqueal garante o fluxo do ar nas vias aéreas por meio da aposição de uma cânula  por via oral ou nasal, a Cricotireoidostomia é um procedimento invasivo que cria uma abertura através da membrana cricotireoidea, enquanto que a Traqueostomia consiste em um procedimento cirúrgico para a criação de uma  abertura entre o 2⁰ e o 3⁰ anel traqueal. Por isso, a manobra de Heimlich é eleita como primeira alternativa nas situações de obstrução aguda seguida das manobras de Jaw Thrust, Chin Lift e a Intubação Endotraqueal. A Cricotireoidostomia é o procedimento invasivo de primeira escolha para o reestabelecimento da ventilação em situações de emergência, enquanto que a Traqueostomia, de caráter eletivo, demanda maior tempo de procedimento. Portanto, a obstrução aguda das vias aéreas superiores é uma complicação grave e de caráter emergencial, por isso deve o Cirurgião-Dentista estar preparado para reverter esse quadro rapidamente nessas situações.

Alice King ◽  
Joshua R. Bedwell ◽  
Deepak K. Mehta ◽  
Gary E. Stapleton ◽  
Henri Justino ◽  

Introduction: Without fetal or perinatal intervention, congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a fatal anomaly. The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure has been used to secure the fetal airway and minimize neonatal hypoxia, but is associated with increased maternal morbidity. Case Presentation: A 16-year-old woman (gravida 1, para 0) was referred to our hospital at 31 weeks gestation with fetal anomalies, including echogenic lungs, tracheobronchial dilation and flattened diaphragms. At 32 weeks, fetoscopic evaluation identified laryngeal stenosis, which was subsequently treated with balloon dilation and stent placement. The patient developed symptomatic and regular preterm contractions at post-operative day 7 with persistent sonographic signs of CHAOS, which prompted a repeat fetoscopy with confirmation of a patent fetal airway followed by Cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia. Attempts to intubate through the tracheal stent were limited and resulted in removal of the stent. A neonatal airway was successfully established with rigid bronchoscopy. Direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy confirmed laryngeal stenosis with a small tracheoesophageal fistula immediately inferior to the laryngeal stenosis and significant tracheomalacia. A tracheostomy was then immediately performed for anticipated long term airway and pulmonary management. The procedures were well tolerated by both mom and baby. The baby demonstrated spontaneous healing of the tracheoesophageal fistula by day of life 7 with discharge home with ventilator support at three months of life. Conclusion: Use of repeated fetoscopy in order to relieve fetal upper airway obstruction offers the potential to minimize neonatal hypoxia, while concurrently decreasing maternal morbidity by avoiding an EXIT procedure. Use of the tracheal stent in CHAOS requires further investigation. The long-term reconstruction and respiratory support of children with CHAOS remain challenging

2022 ◽  
pp. 29-34
Gareth Waters ◽  
Andrew Nyman

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 3-5
Paul Leong ◽  
Debra J Phyland ◽  
Joo Koh ◽  
Malcolm Baxter ◽  
Philip G Bardin

Dong Min Shin ◽  
Gi Cheol Park

Paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM) is a dystonic laryngeal disorder characterized by involuntary vocal fold adduction during inspiration and/or expiration. PVFM is uncommon and may aggravate airway obstruction. And patients with PVFM have a specific etiology; therefore, treatment must be individualized and given immediately. We present a case of 63-year-old male presenting with intermittent dyspnea. After multidisciplinary workup, we presumed psychogenic PVFM and evaluated with speech-language pathologist and psychologist. In this report, we describe a rare case of psychogenic PVFM patient.

2021 ◽  
pp. 82-90
Aslı İmran Yılmaz ◽  
Sevgi Pekcan

Childhood bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an uncommon complication that is characterized clinically by persistent and continuous obstructive respiratory symptoms, and has been described secondary to various etiologic factors, including drugs, exposure to toxic fumes, allergic reactions, collagen vascular disease or infections. BO occurs most commonly in children after an episode of acute bronchiolitis and is considered a long-term sequela of viral infection.Postinfectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans (PIBO) is characterized by persistent airway obstruction with functional and radiological evidence of small airway involvement that is in general unresponsive to bronchodilator treatment.Although the condition is relatively rare, and its exact incidence is unknown, it is important to keep it in mind. PIBO is complication of lower respiratory tract epithelial injury, and is often misdiagnosed, delaying recognition and potential treatment. A PIBO diagnosis is usually based on a few factors, including a good medical history, positive clinical findings, and lung function test and imaging results, although biopsy and histopathology remain as the optimum diagnostic approach. There have to date been few studies proposing treatments for the condition, and no accepted protocol exists in literature. There is usually a fixed airway obstruction in PIBO. Various treatment approaches have been extrapolated from studies of post bone marrow transplantations and lung transplant BO. The clinical course is variable, and good supportive therapy is essential, with anti-inflammatory therapy often being employed.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Chia-Ying Ho ◽  
Yu-Chien Wang ◽  
Shy-Chyi Chin ◽  
Shih-Lung Chen

Deep neck infection (DNI) is a serious disease of deep neck spaces that can lead to morbidities and mortality. Acute epiglottitis (AE) is a severe infection of the epiglottis, which can lead to airway obstruction. However, there have been no studies of risk factors in patients with concurrent DNI and AE. This study was performed to investigate this issue. A total of 502 subjects with DNI were enrolled in the study between June 2016 and August 2021. Among these patients, 30 had concurrent DNI and AE. The relevant clinical variables were assessed. In a univariate analysis, involvement of the parapharyngeal space (OR = 21.50, 95% CI: 2.905–158.7, p < 0.001) and involvement of the submandibular space (OR = 2.064, 95% CI: 0.961–4.434, p < 0.001) were significant risk factors for concurrent DNI and AE. In a multivariate analysis, involvement of the parapharyngeal space (OR = 23.69, 95% CI: 3.187–175.4, p = 0.002) and involvement of the submandibular space (OR = 2.465, 95% CI: 1.131–5.375, p < 0.023) were independent risk factors for patients with concurrent DNI and AE. There were no differences in pathogens, therapeutic managements (tracheostomy, intubation, surgical drainage), or hospital staying period between the 30 patients with concurrent DNI and AE and the 472 patients with DNI alone (all p > 0.05). However, we believe it is significant that DNI and AE are concurrent because both DNI and AE potentially cause airway obstruction, and concurrence of these two diseases make airway protection more difficult. The infections in critical spaces may cause the coincidence of these two diseases. Involvement of the parapharyngeal space and involvement of the submandibular space were independent risk factors associated with concurrent DNI and AE. There were no differences in pathogens between the concurrent DNI and AE group and the DNI alone group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Wei Zhang ◽  
Yang Wang

This study was aimed at exploring the treatment of asthma children with small airway obstruction in CT imaging features of deep learning and glucocorticoid. A total of 145 patients meeting the requirements in hospital were included in this study, and they were randomly assigned to receive aerosolized glucocorticoid ( n = 45 ), aerosolized glucocorticoid combined with bronchodilator ( n = 50 ), or oral steroids ( n = 50 ) for 4 weeks after discharge. The lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) indexes of the three groups were measured, respectively, and then the effective rates were compared to evaluate the clinical efficacy of glucocorticoids with different administration methods and combined medications in the short-term maintenance treatment after acute exacerbation of asthma. Deep learning algorithm was used for CT image segmentation. The CT image is sent to the workbench for processing on the workbench, and then the convolution operation is performed on each input pixel point during the image processing. After 4 weeks of maintenance treatment, FEF50 %, FEF75 %, and MMEF75/25 increased significantly, and FENO decreased significantly ( P < 0.01 ). The improvement results of FEF50 %, FEF75 %, MMEF75/25, and FENO after maintenance treatment were as follows: the oral hormone group was the most effective, followed by the combined atomization inhalation group, and the hormone atomization inhalation group was the least effective. The differences among them were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The accuracy of artificial intelligence segmentation algorithm was 81%. All the hormones were more effective than local medication in the treatment of small airway function and airway inflammation. In the treatment of aerosol inhalation, the hormone combined with bronchiectasis drug was the most effective in improving small airway obstruction and reducing airway inflammation compared with single drug inhalation. Deep learning CT images are simple, noninvasive, and intuitively observe lung changes in asthma with small airway functional obstruction. Asthma with small airway functional obstruction has high clinical diagnosis and evaluation value.

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