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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Emma Gordon ◽  
David L. Chan ◽  
Jennifer Arena ◽  
Elizabeth Bernard ◽  
Emily Carr-Boyd ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Neuroendocrine tumors are rare, heterogeneous neoplasms that produce a wide variety of clinical symptoms. Diarrhea in neuroendocrine tumors is incredibly common and is usually benign in nature. We report two extreme cases of diarrhea in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors that threatened fatality and provide evidence for steroids as a novel agent in the management of vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian male with a grade 2 (Ki-67 17%) metastatic small bowel neuroendocrine tumor, and a 43-year-old female with a grade 2 (Ki-67 5%) metastatic pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor. Both patients suffered life-threatening diarrhea despite extensive treatment modalities, including new systemic agents. This case explains how a lack of compliance and patient under-reporting of symptoms contributed to their challenging clinical course. Only steroids had a significant sustained effect on the diarrhea of the patient with vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor. Conclusions This report discusses two rare cases of life-threatening diarrhea in neuroendocrine tumors and stresses the importance of accurate clinical history taking, patient education, and compliance for symptom control. The report suggests steroids as a potential novel pharmaceutical option in the management of vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors; this is of great significance as it may provide a new approach to their management and potentially act as a life-saving agent in other oncology patients.


Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1372
Author(s):  
Mariasole Colombo ◽  
Donato Traversa ◽  
Eleonora Grillotti ◽  
Carlo Pezzuto ◽  
Cesare De Tommaso ◽  
...  

Canine angiostrongylosis by Angiostrongylus vasorum is increasingly reported in both enzootic and previously free areas. The complex pathogenesis of the disease makes the clinical workup challenging. Infected dogs show highly variable clinical pictures, characterized by subclinical to life-threatening general, cardio-respiratory, neurological and/or gastrointestinal signs. The present study reports the high variability of clinical pictures from 36 dogs across central and southern Italy that were naturally infected by A. vasorum. Of them, 23 (63.9%) presented at least one clinical sign, while 13 (36.1%) were subclinically infected and apparently healthy. Overall, 19 dogs (52.8%) showed cardiorespiratory signs, 14 (38.9%) had non-specific abnormalities, 2 (5.6%) presented coagulation disorders and 1 (2.8%) had a severe neurological condition. Importantly, four dogs presenting with clinical signs had neither cough nor dyspnea. These results underline that angiostrongylosis should be included in the differential diagnosis, even when dogs display only non-specific clinical signs. The proportion of apparently healthy dogs highlights the relevance of routine copromicroscopic and/or antigenic tests in enzootic areas to avoid the sudden onset of potentially life-threatening signs.


Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicha Wongjarupong ◽  
Hamdi S Said ◽  
Richie K Huynh ◽  
Jafar Golzarian ◽  
Nicholas Lim

Author(s):  
Fang-Yu Hsu ◽  
Shih-Hsuan Mao ◽  
Andy Deng-Chi Chuang ◽  
Yon-Cheong Wong ◽  
Chih-Hao Chen

The objective of this retrospective study was to identify predictors of angiographic hemostasis among patients with life-threatening traumatic oronasal bleeding (ONB) and determine the threshold for timely referral or intervention. The diagnosis of traumatic, life-threatening ONB was made if the patient suffered from craniofacial trauma presenting at triage with unstable hemodynamics or required a definitive airway due to ONB, without other major bleeding identified. There were 4404 craniofacial trauma patients between January 2015 and December 2019, of which 72 (1.6%) fulfilled the diagnosis of traumatic life-threatening ONB. Of these patients, 39 (54.2%) received trans-arterial embolization (TAE), 11 (15.3%) were treated with other methods, and 22 (30.5%) were excluded. Motor vehicle accidents were the most common cause of life-threatening ONB (52%), and the internal maxillary artery was the most commonly identified hemorrhaging artery requiring embolization (84%). Shock index (SI) was significantly higher in the angiographic hemostasis group (p < 0.001). The AUC-ROC was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.88–1.00) for SI to predict angiographic hemostasis. Early recognition and timely intervention are crucial in post-traumatic, life-threatening ONB management. Patients initially presenting with SI > 0.95 were more likely to receive TAE, with the TAE group having statistically higher SI than the non-TAE group whilst receiving significantly more packed red blood cells. Hence, for patients presenting with life-threatening traumatic ONB and a SI > 0.95, TAE should be considered if preliminary attempts at hemostasis have failed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Zaremba ◽  
Rafaela Kramer ◽  
Viola De Temple ◽  
Stefanie Bertram ◽  
Martin Salzmann ◽  
...  

IntroductionImmune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are increasingly being used to treat numerous cancer types. Together with improved recognition of toxicities, this has led to more frequent identification of rare immune-related adverse events (irAE), for which specific treatment strategies are needed. Neutropenia is a rare hematological irAE that has a potential for a high mortality rate because of its associated risk of sepsis. Prompt recognition and timely treatment of this life-threatening irAE are therefore critical to the outcome of patients with immune-related neutropenia.MethodsThis multicenter international retrospective study was conducted at 17 melanoma centers to evaluate the clinical characteristics, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes of melanoma patients with grade 4 neutropenia (&lt;500 neutrophils/µl blood) treated with ICI between 2014 and 2020. Some of these patients received metamizole in addition to ICI (ICI+/met+). Bone marrow biopsies (BMB) of these patients were compared to BMB from non-ICI treated patients with metamizole-induced grade 4 neutropenia (ICI-/met+).ResultsIn total, 10 patients (median age at neutropenia onset: 66 years; seven men) with neutropenia were identified, equating to an incidence of 0.14%. Median onset of neutropenia was 6.4 weeks after starting ICI (range 1.4–49.1 weeks). Six patients showed inflammatory symptoms, including fever (n=3), erysipelas (n=1), pharyngeal abscess (n=1), and mucositis (n=1). Neutropenia was diagnosed in all patients by a differential blood count and additionally performed procedures including BMB (n=5). Nine of 10 patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) to treat their grade 4 neutropenia. Four patients received systemic steroids (including two in combination with G-CSF, and one in combination with G-CSF and additional ciclosporin A). Four patients were treated with one or more antibiotic treatment lines, two with antimycotic treatment, and one with additional antiviral therapy. Five patients received metamizole concomitantly with ICI. One fatal outcome was reported. BMB indicated a numerically lower CD4+ to CD8+ T cells ratio in patients with irNeutropenia than in those with metamizole-induced neutropenia.ConclusionGrade 4 neutropenia is a rare but potentially life-threatening side effect of ICI treatment. Most cases were sufficiently managed using G-CSF; however, adequate empiric antibiotic, antiviral, and antimycotic treatments should be administered if neutropenic infections are suspected. Immunosuppression using corticosteroids may be considered after other causes of neutropenia have been excluded.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 4793
Author(s):  
Alison Fecher ◽  
Anthony Stimpson ◽  
Lisa Ferrigno ◽  
Timothy H. Pohlman

The recognition and management of life-threatening hemorrhage in the polytrauma patient poses several challenges to prehospital rescue personnel and hospital providers. First, identification of acute blood loss and the magnitude of lost volume after torso injury may not be readily apparent in the field. Because of the expression of highly effective physiological mechanisms that compensate for a sudden decrease in circulatory volume, a polytrauma patient with a significant blood loss may appear normal during examination by first responders. Consequently, for every polytrauma victim with a significant mechanism of injury we assume substantial blood loss has occurred and life-threatening hemorrhage is progressing until we can prove the contrary. Second, a decision to begin damage control resuscitation (DCR), a costly, highly complex, and potentially dangerous intervention must often be reached with little time and without sufficient clinical information about the intended recipient. Whether to begin DCR in the prehospital phase remains controversial. Furthermore, DCR executed imperfectly has the potential to worsen serious derangements including acidosis, coagulopathy, and profound homeostatic imbalances that DCR is designed to correct. Additionally, transfusion of large amounts of homologous blood during DCR potentially disrupts immune and inflammatory systems, which may induce severe systemic autoinflammatory disease in the aftermath of DCR. Third, controversy remains over the composition of components that are transfused during DCR. For practical reasons, unmatched liquid plasma or freeze-dried plasma is transfused now more commonly than ABO-matched fresh frozen plasma. Low-titer type O whole blood may prove safer than red cell components, although maintaining an inventory of whole blood for possible massive transfusion during DCR creates significant challenges for blood banks. Lastly, as the primary principle of management of life-threatening hemorrhage is surgical or angiographic control of bleeding, DCR must not eclipse these definitive interventions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (20) ◽  
pp. 11290
Author(s):  
Mahmoud Youssef ◽  
Hanaa Y. Ahmed ◽  
Abel Zongo ◽  
Ali Korin ◽  
Fuchao Zhan ◽  
...  

Chronic diseases and viral infections have threatened human life over the ages and constitute the main reason for increasing death globally. The rising burden of these diseases extends to negatively affecting the economy and trading globally, as well as daily life, which requires inexpensive, novel, and safe therapeutics. Therefore, scientists have paid close attention to probiotics as safe remedies to combat these morbidities owing to their health benefits and biotherapeutic effects. Probiotics have been broadly adopted as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements to improve human health and prevent some morbidity. Intriguingly, recent research indicates that probiotics are a promising solution for treating and prophylactic against certain dangerous diseases. Probiotics could also be associated with their essential role in animating the immune system to fight COVID-19 infection. This comprehensive review concentrates on the newest literature on probiotics and their metabolism in treating life-threatening diseases, including immune disorders, pathogens, inflammatory and allergic diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, and COVID-19 infection. The recent information in this report will particularly furnish a platform for emerging novel probiotics-based therapeutics as cheap and safe, encouraging researchers and stakeholders to develop innovative treatments based on probiotics to prevent and treat chronic and viral diseases.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rebeca Gregorio-Hernández ◽  
Alba Pérez-Pérez ◽  
Almudena Alonso-Ojembarrena ◽  
María Arriaga-Redondo ◽  
Cristina Ramos-Navarro ◽  
...  

Abstract Neonatal pneumothorax (NP) is a potentially life-threatening condition. Lung ultrasound (LU) has shown higher sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis compared to x-rays, but evidence regarding its usefulness in complex NP is lacking. We report four neonates suffering from cardiac or esophagueal malformations who developed lateral and/or posterior pneumothoraces, in which LU helped, making NP diagnosis and management easier and faster. In conclusion, LU is an easy-to-use, fast, simple and accurate tool when evaluating newborns with complex thoracic diseases.


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