Function Test
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jin-Xi Huang ◽  
Song-Ming Hong ◽  
Jun-Jie Hong ◽  
Qiang Chen ◽  
Hua Cao

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the outcomes and pulmonary function test (PFT) of thoracoscopic segmentectomy and lobectomy in infants with congenital lung malformation and study the result of PFT on a medium-term basis.Methods: The clinical data of 19 infants with congenital lung malformation who underwent thoracoscopic surgery in our hospital from January 2018 to March 2019 were retrospectively studied; these infants were paired with another 19 infants who underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy during the same period using propensity score matching. Age-matched healthy individuals with similar body sizes were recruited for PFT as the control group. Patient characteristics, postoperative PFT, and outcomes were extracted for statistical analysis.Results: The average length of hospital stay did not significantly differ between segmentectomy and lobectomy groups. The segmentectomy group had more chest tube drainage than the lobectomy group. PFT 1 month after the operation showed that the tidal volume of the lobectomy group was lower than that of the segmentectomy group. Time to peak expiratory flow/time of expiration and peak flow/terminal airway velocity (V25%) indicated small airway dysfunction in the lobectomy group, and no obvious abnormalities were found in “time of inspiratory/time of expiration” in either group. Reexamination of pulmonary function 2 years after the operation showed that the small airway function of the segmentectomy group returned to normal, and no significant difference in pulmonary function was noted among the three groups.Conclusion: The short-term pulmonary function recovery was better after segmentectomy than after lobectomy. Patients who underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy and segmentectomy have normal lung function 2 years after the operation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Asim Mumtaz ◽  
Fauzia Sadiq ◽  
Saima Zaki ◽  
Hijab Batool ◽  
Muhammad Ibrahim ◽  

Abstract Background The significance of investigation for diagnosing and managing thyroid dysfunction in pregnant females has been extensively documented in the medical literature. This study aimed to determine trimester-specific reference ranges for thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH), free T3 (FT3), and free T4 (FT4) in apparently healthy pregnant women attending tertiary care hospitals in Lahore. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at two tertiary care Hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. In this multi-centric study, 500 pregnant females were initially enrolled from September 2019 to December 2019 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For measurement of serum FT3, FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and thyroglobulin antibodies, 5 ml of the blood sample was drawn, under aseptic conditions, from each subject using Maglumi 800 chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) system. Results Out of 500 subjects, 23 subjects with positive anti-TPO, 19 subjects with anti-TG antibodies, and 12 subjects due to less volume of serum yielded from whole blood (serum less than 3 ml) were excluded from the analysis. Ten samples were hemolyzed and not included in the analysis. A total of 436 samples were examined for analysis. Of the remaining 436 subjects, 133 (30.5%) were from 1st trimester, 153 (35.1%) from 2nd trimester, and 150 (34.4%) from 3rd trimester. As the data were non-normal, the 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th percentiles were calculated to express each group's results. Trimester specific range of TSH 0.168-4.294, 0.258-4.584 and 0.341-4.625 mIU/mL, FT31.857-4.408, 1.958-4.621 and 2.025-4.821 pmol/L and FT4 8.815-18.006, 8.306-17.341 and 7.402-17.292 pmol/L. Conclusion In this study, we established a trimester-specific reference range for our local population's thyroid function test. The results of this study have complemented the results of previous studies.

Trials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Camille O. Muller ◽  
Makii Muthalib ◽  
Denis Mottet ◽  
Stéphane Perrey ◽  
Gérard Dray ◽  

Abstract Background After a stroke, 80% of the chronic patients have difficulties to use their paretic upper limb (UL) in activities of daily life (ADL) even after rehabilitation. Virtual reality therapy (VRT) and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two innovative methods that have shown independently to positively impact functional recovery of the paretic UL when combined with conventional therapy. The objective of the project will be to evaluate the impact of adding anodal high-definition (HD)-tDCS during an intensive 3-week UL VRT and conventional therapy program on paretic UL function in chronic stroke. Methods The ReArm project is a quadruple-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled, bi-centre, two-arm parallel, and interventional study design. Fifty-eight chronic (> 3 months) stroke patients will be recruited from the Montpellier and Nimes University Hospitals. Patients will follow a standard 3-week in-patient rehabilitation program, which includes 13 days of VRT (Armeo Spring, 1 × 30 min session/day) and conventional therapy (3 × 30 min sessions/day). Twenty-nine patients will receive real stimulation (4x1 anodal HD-tDCS montage, 2 mA, 20 min) to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex during the VRT session and the other 29 patients will receive active sham stimulation (2 mA, 30 s). All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, at the end of rehabilitation and again 3 months later. The primary outcome measure will be the wolf motor function test. Secondary outcomes will include measures of UL function (Box and Block Test), impairment (Fugl Meyer Upper Extremity), compensation (Proximal Arm Non-Use), ADL (Actimetry, Barthel Index). Other/exploratory outcomes will include pain, fatigue, effort and performance, kinematics, and motor cortical region activation during functional motor tasks. Discussion This will be the first trial to determine the impact of adding HD-tDCS during UL VRT and conventional therapy in chronic stroke patients. We hypothesize that improvements in UL function will be greater and longer-lasting with real stimulation than in those receiving sham. Trial registration The ReArm project was approved by The French Research Ethics Committee, (Comité de Protection des Personnes-CPP SUD-EST II, N°ID-RCB: 2019-A00506-51, The ReArm project was registered on (NCT04291573, 2nd March 2020.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 129-133
Muhammad Musthafa ◽  
Yani sugiri ◽  
Imam Bayuadi ◽  

Introduction: Pleural tuberculosis is a pleural infection of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which commonly manifests as hydropneumothorax. Initial treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs is aimed to prevent progression of the disease and relieve patient’s symptoms. Indication of adhesiolysis and decortication is to remove layer of fibrous tissue and allow the lung to reexpand. Case: A 60 year old woman with shortness of breath, cough, and right-sided chest pain. She had a history of treatment with first-line anti-tubercular drugs for a year stop in September 2016. She was identified with recurrent right-sided hydropneumothorax by chest imaging and thorax CT-scan. Adhesiolysis and decortication were performed on her. Two months later she was diagnosed again with recurrent right-sided hydropneumothorax. VATS (Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery) revealed fistula involving inferior lobe of the lung. Then, she was treated with second-line anti tuberculosis drugs. After four times reccurent hydropneumothorax, patient showed significant improvement in clinical condition, radiology finding, and lung function test after she finished the tuberculosis treatment. Discussion: Definitive diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis is by the finding of mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural biopsy, or Mtb culture, and it was difficult to perform. In this case pleural fluid analysis revealed that cause of recurrent right-sided hydropneumothorax was tuberculosis infection. Summary: A 60 year old woman with four times reccurent right-sided hydropneumothorax, and the pleural fluid analysis suggested it was tuberculosis infection. Providing anti-tuberculosis medication based on clinically diagnosed tuberculosis based on flowchart of tuberculosis diagnosis from national tuberculosis programmed are essential to prevent progression of the disease.

2021 ◽  
pp. BJGP.2021.0282
Yin Zhou ◽  
Fiona M Walter ◽  
Luke Timothy Allan Mounce ◽  
Gary A Abel ◽  
Hardeep Singh ◽  

Background: Understanding pre-diagnostic test use could reveal diagnostic windows where more timely evaluation for cancer may be indicated. Aim: To examine pre-diagnostic patterns of results of abnormal blood tests in bladder and renal cancer patients. Design and setting: Retrospective cohort study using primary care and cancer registry data on bladder and renal cancer patients diagnosed between 2012-2015 in England. Method: We examined the rates of patients with a first abnormal result in the year before diagnosis, for “generic” (full blood count components, inflammatory markers, calcium) and “organ-specific” blood tests (creatinine, liver function test components) which may lead to subsequent detection of incidental cancers. We used Poisson regression, to detect the month during which the cohort’s rate of each abnormal test started to increase from baseline, and examined the proportion of patients with a test found in the first half of the window, as these ‘early’ tests might represent opportunities where further evaluation could be initiated. Results: Data from 4,533 bladder and renal cancer patients were analysed. The monthly rate of patients with a first abnormal test increased towards the time of cancer diagnosis. Abnormalities of both generic and organ-specific tests started to increase from 6-8 months pre-diagnosis, with 25-40% of these patients having an abnormal test in the “early half” of the diagnostic window. Conclusion: Population-level signals of bladder and renal cancer can be observed in abnormalities in commonly performed primary care blood tests up to 8 months before diagnosis, indicating the potential for earlier diagnosis in some patients.

ATS Scholar ◽  
2021 ◽  
Silke Doris Braun ◽  
Mareen Clayton ◽  
Dirk Koschel ◽  
Claudia Prescher ◽  
Hermann Körndle ◽  

Akhila R Kurup ◽  

Ayurveda physicians provide treatment for viral hepatitis patients in Kerala. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices in viral hepatitis management among Ayurveda physicians (APs) of Kerala. Materials & Methods: An in depth telephonic interview and a questionnaire were administered among APs in Kerala for assessing knowledge about viral hepatitis and its treatment. Results: All the 150 participants were aware about different types of viral hepatitis. Around 90% Aps know about complications of viral hepatitis and mode of transmission.  Only 20% screen their patients before performing Panchakarma therapy and para-surgical procedures in their clinic. All physicians depends liver function test for diagnosing and assessing different types of Hepatitis; only  6.6% physicians additionally prescribe Ultrasonogram of abdomen and viral load. Majority physicians reported chronicity for HBV and HCV infections and good outcome/ curable for hepatitis A. Only a few physicians were documenting the cases in their clinics. The lack of structured case proforma for documentation and guidelines for management, research, patient education and time constraints was reported as challenges in the treatment of viral hepatitis by the majority of AP in the current survey.  Conclusion: The majority of doctors had a good knowledge of the different types of viral hepatitis and they depended on laboratory examinations for diagnosis and evaluation. The treatment strategies were based on the treatment principles of Kamala and Panduroga in Ayurveda.

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1050
Gerasimos Eleftheriotis ◽  
Elias Skopelitis

This article describes the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented with prolonged fever, positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and splenomegaly. Pulmonary infiltrates were discovered and the patient was treated for community-acquired pneumonia, with no clinical amelioration. A more thorough evaluation was subsequently made, revealing elevated serum IgE and IgG4 levels and negative ANA tested by the hospital’s laboratory with two methods. During hospitalization thrombocytopenia, liver function test impairment, and evanescent rash during some febrile episodes developed. Vomiting also presented without any concomitant symptoms or signs; a funduscopic examination was consequently ordered, showing bilateral papilledema. Brain imaging was totally normal but a lumbar puncture revealed elevated opening pressure and lymphocytic pleocytosis along with low cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase (CSF LDH). The patient was empirically treated with antimicrobials, dexamethasone, and acetazolamide and had immediate clinical and laboratory improvement. Diagnostic workup, however, was negative for an infectious agent; antimicrobials were ceased but the patient continued to improve. Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) was considered as the working diagnosis because the patient fulfilled Yamaguchi criteria, responded to corticosteroids, and an alternative diagnosis was lacking. Nevertheless, because of the patient’s atypical features a trial to discontinue dexamethasone was undertaken, leading to immediate recurrence; the possibility of a self-limiting viral illness was excluded. Thrombocytopenia was attributed to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) that complicated AOSD. Corticosteroid reinitiation combined with methotrexate fully controlled all clinical and laboratory parameters. One month later papilledema had disappeared and the patient remained symptom-free even without acetazolamide. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of an AOSD case presenting intracranial hypertension without cerebral imaging abnormalities and neurological or meningeal symptoms and signs, as well as with the initial observation of serum IgG4 elevation. A classic regimen combined with acetazolamide led to a positive outcome.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (20) ◽  
pp. 6250
Yu-Hsin Chen ◽  
Yen-Chou Chen ◽  
Ling-Ling Hwang ◽  
Liang-Yo Yang ◽  
Dah-Yuu Lu

Androgens have been shown to have a beneficial effect on brain injury and lower reactive astrocyte expression after TBI. Androgen receptors (ARs) are known to mediate the neuroprotective effects of androgens. However, whether ARs play a crucial role in TBI remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of ARs in TBI pathophysiology, using AR knockout (ARKO) mice. We used the controlled cortical impact model to produce primary and mechanical brain injuries and assessed motor function and brain-lesion volume. In addition, the AR knockout effects on necrosis and autophagy were evaluated after TBI. AR knockout significantly increased TBI-induced expression of the necrosis marker alpha-II-spectrin breakdown product 150 and astrogliosis marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. In addition, the TBI-induced astrogliosis increase in ARKO mice lasted for three weeks after a TBI. The autophagy marker Beclin-1 was also enhanced in ARKO mice compared with wild-type mice after TBI. Our results also indicated that ARKO mice showed a more unsatisfactory performance than wild-type mice in a motor function test following TBI. Further, they were observed to have more severe lesions than wild-type mice after injury. These findings strongly suggest that ARs play a role in TBI.

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