late nineteenth
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Afsaneh Najmabadi

Not long after her father died, Afsaneh Najmabadi discovered that her father had a secret second family and that she had a sister she never knew about. In Familial Undercurrents, Najmabadi uncovers her family’s complex experiences of polygamous marriage to tell a larger story of the transformations of notions of love, marriage, and family life in mid-twentieth-century Iran. She traces how the idea of “marrying for love” and the desire for companionate, monogamous marriage acquired dominance in Tehran’s emerging urban middle class. Considering the role played in that process by late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century romance novels, reformist newspapers, plays, and other literature, Najmabadi outlines the rituals and objects---such as wedding outfits, letter writing, and family portraits---that came to characterize the ideal companionate marriage. She reveals how in the course of one generation men’s polygamy had evolved from an acceptable open practice to a taboo best kept secret. At the same time, she chronicles the urban transformations of Tehran and how its architecture and neighborhood social networks both influenced and became emblematic of the myriad forms of modern Iranian family life.


Author(s):  
Joan E. Greer

This article is concerned with representations of insects and insect habitats in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Dutch art and print culture. It adopts an eco-critical approach, with an eye toward multispecies studies. The article considers the ecologically conceived image of bees, butterflies, and other insects gathering pollen from a wide range of flowering plant life in Theo van Hoytema’s lithograph announcing the Biological Exhibition: the Life of Plants and Animals held in 1910 at the Royal Zoological Botanical Gardens in The Hague. This closely observed water’s-edge environment is considered in the context of the wider body of works on paper done by Van Huitema especially during the seminal period of the 1890s, and within the growing print culture surrounding the Dutch naturalist and environmental movements in the early years of the twentieth century.


Author(s):  
Baatr Kitinov

Baatr Kitinov’s paper uses Russian archival documents to examine the late nineteenth century revitalisation of Buddhism among the Russian Kalmyk population. He identifies three stages in this process: 1. 1860–1880, when Mongols wanted to “find” an incarnation of the Seventh Jebtsundamba Khutughtu among the Kalmyks (“Turgut”) in Russia or Olüts in Chinese Xinjiang; 2. 1880–1904, when the Dalai Lama was in Mongolia and Kalmyks traveled to Tibet; and 3. from 1904 to the first years of Soviet power, during which they maintained close contacts with the Dalai Lama. He also identifies three internal factors for the revitalization of Buddhism amongst the Kalmyks: 1. the revival of Tantrism in khurul practices; 2. the presence of Buddhists from other lands among Kalmyks; 3. and the Russian authorities permitting Kalmyks to visit the Dalai Lama in Urga.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 608
Author(s):  
Silvia Santini ◽  
Vittoria Borghese ◽  
Mario Micheli ◽  
Erick Orellana Paz

This paper presents the experience of both interdisciplinary and sustainable implementation of an educational construction site for the recovery of the architectural heritage in Central America. Rey Prendes House is representative of one hundred and forty-five houses made of wood, stamped steel sheet, and deployé that are located in the historical center of San Salvador. Its origin is linked to historical events, such as the strong migration of foreigners to El Salvador in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the presidential decrees that encouraged the reconstruction of the city with anti-seismic materials as a result of the earthquakes of 1873 and 1917. More recently, since 2017, Rey Prendes House has been included in the project funded by the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation. In this paper, the phases of the survey are documented with both materials and degradation analyses, the new design construction with BIM technology for the organization of the educational construction site, the creation of offices and laboratories for restoration and treatments of timber and metal details. Moreover, the study provides a contextual framework with the aim of describing the policies and the projects implemented, highlighting the adopted strategies, the results achieved, and outlining the path followed towards the design solutions for sustainable rehabilitation relating to future use.


Author(s):  
Anna Gasperini

Abstract This article compares images of food as temptation, and hunger as test, in two samples of late-nineteenth century British and Italian children’s literature. It reads the narratives alongside coeval popular medical manuals on child health, examining recurring descriptions of children as natural gluttons in works dedicated to child nutrition. Putting the select fiction and non-fiction in dialogue with moral, scientific, and nation-building middle-class discourses circulating in both countries, the article finds that the ‘gluttonous child’ narrative was both transnational and transtextual.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Isabel Hofmeyr

In Dockside Reading Isabel Hofmeyr traces the relationships among print culture, colonialism, and the ocean through the institution of the British colonial Custom House. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, dockside customs officials would leaf through publications looking for obscenity, politically objectionable materials, or reprints of British copyrighted works, often dumping these condemned goods into the water. These practices, echoing other colonial imaginaries of the ocean as a space for erasing incriminating evidence of the violence of empire, informed later censorship regimes under apartheid in South Africa. By tracking printed matter from ship to shore, Hofmeyr shows how literary institutions like copyright and censorship were shaped by colonial control of coastal waters. Set in the environmental context of the colonial port city, Dockside Reading explores how imperialism colonizes water. Hofmeyr examines this theme through the concept of hydrocolonialism, which puts together land and sea, empire and environment.


Ethnohistory ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-52
Author(s):  
Émilie Pigeon ◽  
Carolyn Podruchny

Abstract Métis women have been neglected in scholarship because they are hard to find in historical records. Seeking out little-used sources and amplifying their voices in them demonstrate that they were significant figures in maintaining peace within their communities on the northern Great Plains in the mid- to late nineteenth century. Through their actions in battles and diplomatic negotiations, they showed themselves to be particularly skilled in conflict resolution. This article highlights two key instances in which Métis women used both courage and judiciousness to support their communities. The first is the 1851 Battle of Grand Coteau between the Yanktonais Sioux and a Métis and Anishinaabe bison-hunting party. The second is a Métis trading family negotiating with Lakota in the late 1870s through the actions of Sarah Nolin. In this article, we survey key historical moments in Métis women’s lives and experiences in the geography now known as North Dakota, exemplifying their approaches to diplomacy, conflict resolution, and political affirmation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 91 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Author(s):  
Jarrod Hore

This article examines how settlers in New Zealand and California responded to seismic instability throughout the late nineteenth century. By interpreting a series of moments during which the foundations of settlement were shaken by earthquakes I argue that the economic temporality of colonial boom and bust inflected contemporary understandings of natural disaster. In earthquake country, the relationships between scientists and settlers, their environmental knowledge, and the physical world existed in a dynamic equilibrium. When earthquakes struck in opportune conditions settlers were quick to resume their speculation on land, scientists were inspired by upheaval, and artists found sublimity in instability. In times of doubt earthquakes induced a latent anxiety among settlers about the prospects of the colonial project. In this context natural disasters were framed as threats to growth or harbingers of decline. Read together, responses to earthquakes offer a new way into the environmental history of settler colonialism that places a form of creative destruction at the center of the colonial project on both sides of the Pacific Rim.


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