Not long after her father died, Afsaneh Najmabadi discovered that her father had a secret second family and that she had a sister she never knew about. In Familial Undercurrents, Najmabadi uncovers her family’s complex experiences of polygamous marriage to tell a larger story of the transformations of notions of love, marriage, and family life in mid-twentieth-century Iran. She traces how the idea of “marrying for love” and the desire for companionate, monogamous marriage acquired dominance in Tehran’s emerging urban middle class. Considering the role played in that process by late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century romance novels, reformist newspapers, plays, and other literature, Najmabadi outlines the rituals and objects---such as wedding outfits, letter writing, and family portraits---that came to characterize the ideal companionate marriage. She reveals how in the course of one generation men’s polygamy had evolved from an acceptable open practice to a taboo best kept secret. At the same time, she chronicles the urban transformations of Tehran and how its architecture and neighborhood social networks both influenced and became emblematic of the myriad forms of modern Iranian family life.
The art world is a multi-billion-dollar industry which captures world headlines on a regular basis, for both good and bad reasons. This book deals with one of the most-discussed areas of controversy: high-profile objects that have experts arguing about their veracity. Some may have been looted, others may be fakes, some may be heavily restored or misattributed. Often, in these cases, analytical science is called on to settle a dispute. The authors of this book have decades of experience in this field, working on a range of objects dating from prehistory to the twentieth century. They present seven of the most famous cases from the Getty Kouros to the Turin Shroud – some of which are still contested, and examine how a few words from a connoisseur or scientist can make a virtually valueless object worth hundreds of millions. And vice versa.
This article is concerned with representations of insects and insect habitats in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Dutch art and print culture. It adopts an eco-critical approach, with an eye toward multispecies studies. The article considers the ecologically conceived image of bees, butterflies, and other insects gathering pollen from a wide range of flowering plant life in Theo van Hoytema’s lithograph announcing the Biological Exhibition: the Life of Plants and Animals held in 1910 at the Royal Zoological Botanical Gardens in The Hague. This closely observed water’s-edge environment is considered in the context of the wider body of works on paper done by Van Huitema especially during the seminal period of the 1890s, and within the growing print culture surrounding the Dutch naturalist and environmental movements in the early years of the twentieth century.
High modernity claims that the modernity project gave rise to institutional
organs of modern nation states, culminating in an emergence
of ultra-military states with wartime economy in the early twentieth
century. It also argues that the same developmental pattern continued
to dominate in the post-World War II period. This chapter examines this
high-modernity thesis, employing Japan and Hiroshima as cases to be
analyzed. Against the high-modernity thesis, many believe that Japan
had a historical disjuncture in 1945, being ultramilitary before the end
of World War II and a peaceful nation after. Examinations show that,
while the modernity project controlled a large-scale historical process in
Japan, it met vehement resistance, and became stranded in Hiroshima.
Sergey Kuzmin’s paper draws on Russian and Mongolian archives to
discuss the relationship between the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and the
Jebtsundamba Khutagtu in the context of their joint hopes for future
independence. This was promoted by the prevalence of Tibetan Buddhism
in Mongolia, the leadership of the Tibetan-born Jetsun Dampa Khutuktu,
the influential Tibetan colony in the Mongolian capital of Niislel Khuree,
and permanent contacts between Mongols and Tibetans. It demonstrates
how the two states co-ordinated their independence struggle during the
first half of the twentieth century. This association continued after the
two states had broken away from China and continued into the 1930s,
with individual Tibetan hierarchs becoming involved in local resistance
to the Socialist suppression of Buddhism in Mongolia.
We present an interdisciplinary study between philosophy and science that uses a historical case to show some aspects of scientific research. The case in question is that of Alfred F. Rittmann (1893–1980), known as one of the central figures of twentieth-century volcanology. After outlining Rittmann’s scientific background and hypotheses, we briefly examine the set of his theories using Thomas Kuhn’s model of the development of science. We highlight the methodology of multiple working hypotheses and how they contributed to defining his geoscientific paradigm, namely, magmatological tectonics. Rittmann worked on his paradigm throughout his life, even making little-known criticisms on plate tectonics. We present some of them, contextualizing them in twentieth-century as well as current research. His use of multiple working hypotheses, along with his drive to search for synthetic visions between different models, could be a stimulating and pluralistic approach to unsolved geoscientific questions.
Hamugetu’s paper discusses the relationships between tradition and
modernity through an examination of the Seventh lCang-skya’s activities
in China and Inner Mongolia in the late Qing period. Articulating
a modern ideology of the separation of church and state, he sought to
protect the interests of Tibetan Buddhist society from both the Chinese
government and Inner Mongolian nationalists through accommodating
both forces, while simultaneously seeking to reform Tibetan Buddhism in
Inner Mongolia along modernist lines. Striving to protect the interests of
the Buddhist community, the struggle of the Seventh lCang-skya between
the system of jasak lamas and the separation of religion and state is typical
of the issues facing the Tibetan Buddhist world in the early 20th century.
The introduction outlines the subject of the research. One of the most
relevant early medieval elite kinship groups of the Italian kingdom were
the Hucpoldings, named after that Hucpold who had held the office of
count palatine under Louis II. Key features of the research are the long
chronological range and the wide geographical area investigated. The chapter
then retraces the main historiographical steps taken in investigations of early
medieval kinship groups from the second half of the twentieth century until
the latest developments. A specific section is dedicated to the presentation
and analysis of the documentary and narrative sources used in this research.