the ideal
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2022 ◽  
Afsaneh Najmabadi

Not long after her father died, Afsaneh Najmabadi discovered that her father had a secret second family and that she had a sister she never knew about. In Familial Undercurrents, Najmabadi uncovers her family’s complex experiences of polygamous marriage to tell a larger story of the transformations of notions of love, marriage, and family life in mid-twentieth-century Iran. She traces how the idea of “marrying for love” and the desire for companionate, monogamous marriage acquired dominance in Tehran’s emerging urban middle class. Considering the role played in that process by late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century romance novels, reformist newspapers, plays, and other literature, Najmabadi outlines the rituals and objects---such as wedding outfits, letter writing, and family portraits---that came to characterize the ideal companionate marriage. She reveals how in the course of one generation men’s polygamy had evolved from an acceptable open practice to a taboo best kept secret. At the same time, she chronicles the urban transformations of Tehran and how its architecture and neighborhood social networks both influenced and became emblematic of the myriad forms of modern Iranian family life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 186 ◽  
pp. 111815
Claudia Moggia ◽  
Oscar Peñaloza ◽  
José Torres ◽  
Sebastian Romero-Bravo ◽  
Daniel Sepulveda ◽  

2022 ◽  
René Hernández

The book explores the manuscripts written, read, and studied by Franciscan friars from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries in Northern Italy, and specifically Padua, assessing four key aspects: ideal, space, form and readership. The ideal is studied through the regulations that determined what manuscripts should aim for. Space refers to the development and role of Franciscan libraries. The form is revealed by the assessment of the physical configuration of a set of representative manuscripts read, written, and manufactured by the friars. Finally, the study of the readership shows how Franciscans were skilled readers who employed certain forms of the manuscript as a portable, personal library, and as a tool for learning and pastoral care. By comparing the book collections of Padua’s reformed and unreformed medieval Franciscan libraries for the first time, this study reveals new features of the ground-breaking cultural agency of medieval friars.

Yousif Atalla ◽  
Yasir Hashim ◽  
Abdul Nasir Abd. Ghafar

<span>This paper studies the impact of fin width of channel on temperature and electrical characteristics of fin field-effect transistor (FinFET). The simulation tool multi-gate field effect transistor (MuGFET) has been used to examine the FinFET characteristics. Transfer characteristics with various temperatures and channel fin width (W<sub>F</sub>=5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 nm) are at first simulated in this study. The results show that the increasing of environmental temperature tends to increase threshold voltage, while the subthreshold swing (SS) and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) rise with rising working temperature. Also, the threshold voltage decreases with increasing channel fin width of transistor, while the SS and DIBL increase with increasing channel fin width of transistor, at minimum channel fin width, the SS is very near to the best and ideal then its value grows and going far from the ideal value with increasing channel fin width. So, according to these conditions, the minimum value as possible of fin width is the preferable one for FinFET with better electrical characteristics.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Sheel Sindhu Manohar ◽  
Sparsh Mittal ◽  
Hemangee K. Kapoor

In the deep sub-micron region, “spin-transfer torque RAM” (STT-RAM ) suffers from “read-disturbance error” (RDE) , whereby a read operation disturbs the stored data. Mitigation of RDE requires restore operations, which imposes latency and energy penalties. Hence, RDE presents a crucial threat to the scaling of STT-RAM. In this paper, we offer three techniques to reduce the restore overhead. First, we avoid the restore operations for those reads, where the block will get updated at a higher level cache in the near future. Second, we identify read-intensive blocks using a lightweight mechanism and then migrate these blocks to a small SRAM buffer. On a future read to these blocks, the restore operation is avoided. Third, for data blocks having zero value, a write operation is avoided, and only a flag is set. Based on this flag, both read and restore operations to this block are avoided. We combine these three techniques to design our final policy, named CORIDOR. Compared to a baseline policy, which performs restore operation after each read, CORIDOR achieves a 31.6% reduction in total energy and brings the relative CPI (cycle-per-instruction) to 0.64×. By contrast, an ideal RDE-free STT-RAM saves 42.7% energy and brings the relative CPI to 0.62×. Thus, our CORIDOR policy achieves nearly the same performance as an ideal RDE-free STT-RAM cache. Also, it reaches three-fourths of the energy-saving achieved by the ideal RDE-free cache. We also compare CORIDOR with four previous techniques and show that CORIDOR provides higher restore energy savings than these techniques.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 209
Andreia F. Santos ◽  
Ana M. Veríssimo ◽  
Pedro Brites ◽  
Filipe M. Baptista ◽  
José C. Góis ◽  

Sustainable agriculture practices within the guidelines of nutrient recycling and the circular economy must be increasingly promoted. This work aims to evaluate the performance of dried sewage sludge (DSS), green liquor dregs mixed with sewage sludge (DSSA), raw sewage sludge, and commercial organic fertilizer control, using a short-term agronomic assessment with lettuce crop (Lactuca sativa) in greenhouse conditions. Different application rates based on the nitrogen content were tested for each soil amendment: 0, 85, 170, and 225 kg N/ha (treatments T0, T1, T2, and T3, respectively). DSS and DSSA resulted in fresh lettuce productivities 1.3 and 3.2 times higher in T3 than in T0, respectively. The ideal N content in lettuce leaves was reached for all materials and treatments, with the highest values obtained for DSS (2.88–3.33% from T1 to T3). Lettuce produced in soils amended with DSS and DSSA showed also ideal levels of Ca. Overall, the performance of sludge-based products was similar to commercial fertilizer, without impairing the nutritional balance of the crop and the soil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 285-288
S L V Sankeerthi C H ◽  
Sai Ravi Kiran Biri ◽  
Sandhya Rani T ◽  
Rajkumar Gundu ◽  
Aravind Vadlakonda

Diabetes is one of the leading causes for end stage renal disease and nephropathy. Increases of blood urea and serum creatinine are due to abnormal renal function and also reduction in glomerular filtration rate. So, Urea and Creatinine are the ideal biomarkers to correlate the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Aim of the study is to evaluate the blood urea & serum creatinine with HbA1C in Diabetes mellitus patients.: A total of 50 cases and 30 controls were selected in our study. Blood samples were collected for blood urea, serum creatinine, HbA1C, Fasting plasma glucose and Post prandial blood sugar with age limit of 35-65 years. Mean ±SD was calculated for all these parameters. Blood urea and Serum creatinine are statistically significant in Diabetic patients when compared to the controls.Our study shows that blood urea and serum creatinine can be used as biomarkers in the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. These parameters help in reducing the severity of renal failure.

2022 ◽  
Jerry Jing

<p>this article is aimed to design two impedances matching network to let the source degeneration and common gate amplifier to achieve the ideal characteristic. In the source degeneration case as the resistance is so small, so we just use down converting matching network. As the source degeneration gives us a high resistance , we just match with a up converting network.<b></b></p><p> </p>

2022 ◽  
Armen Der Kiureghian

Based on material taught at the University of California, Berkeley, this textbook offers a modern, rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the methods of structural and system reliability analysis. It covers the first- and second-order reliability methods for components and systems, simulation methods, time- and space-variant reliability, and Bayesian parameter estimation and reliability updating. It also presents more advanced, state-of-the-art topics such as finite-element reliability methods, stochastic structural dynamics, reliability-based optimal design, and Bayesian networks. A wealth of well-designed examples connect theory with practice, with simple examples demonstrating mathematical concepts and larger examples demonstrating their applications. End-of-chapter homework problems are included throughout. Including all necessary background material from probability theory, and accompanied online by a solutions manual and PowerPoint slides for instructors, this is the ideal text for senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses on structural and system reliability in departments of civil, environmental and mechanical engineering.

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