early years
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Joan E. Greer

This article is concerned with representations of insects and insect habitats in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Dutch art and print culture. It adopts an eco-critical approach, with an eye toward multispecies studies. The article considers the ecologically conceived image of bees, butterflies, and other insects gathering pollen from a wide range of flowering plant life in Theo van Hoytema’s lithograph announcing the Biological Exhibition: the Life of Plants and Animals held in 1910 at the Royal Zoological Botanical Gardens in The Hague. This closely observed water’s-edge environment is considered in the context of the wider body of works on paper done by Van Huitema especially during the seminal period of the 1890s, and within the growing print culture surrounding the Dutch naturalist and environmental movements in the early years of the twentieth century.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-43
Gino Cattani ◽  
Mariachiara Colucci ◽  
Simone Ferriani

We trace the history of Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel’s entrepreneurial journey as a fashion designer from her early years as an outsider (early 1900s) to her rise to success and consecration as an icon within the French haute couture field (early 1930s)—a field controlled by powerful insiders. Our study sheds light on the social forces and historical circumstances underlying an outsider’s journey from the margins of an established field to its core. Drawing on unique historical material, we develop a novel process view that highlights the shifting influence of forces operating at different levels in the accumulation, deployment, and conversion of various forms of capital (i.e., human, social, economic, and symbolic) that outsiders need to promote their ideas. In particular, our multilevel perspective accounts simultaneously for the individual’s efforts to push forward these ideas (micro-level), as well as the audience dynamics (meso-level) and exogenous forces (macro-level) that shape their recognition. Chanel’s historical case analysis also affords a window into one of the first female entrepreneurs with global impact in business history, with the added challenge of establishing herself in what at the time was a male-dominated and mature field.

2022 ◽  
pp. 095892872110561
Kristina Goldacker ◽  
Janna Wilhelm ◽  
Susanne Wirag ◽  
Pia Dahl ◽  
Tanja Riotte ◽  

This study investigates how parental leave policies and uptake may impact heterosexual couples’ relationship satisfaction. It focuses on Germany as an example of a country with a history of familialist policies and long maternal leaves that has recently undergone a significant policy shift. We extend the literature by examining the effects of maternal and paternal leave duration on both partners’ relationship satisfaction while distinguishing between the length of solo, joint and overall leave. The study applies two different methods on data from the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam). First, the study applies fixed-effects regression models ( n = 1046 couples) to investigate the impact of parental leave duration on the change in mothers’ and fathers’ satisfaction over the child’s early years. Second, drawing on exogenous variation as a result of the parental leave reform of 2007, which shortened paid leave for mothers and incentivised fathers’ leave take-up, difference-in-difference analyses ( n = 1403 couples) analyse reform effects on relationship satisfaction of parents with 3-year-old children. The fixed-effects models indicated a consistent negative impact of maternal – especially solo – leave duration on both mothers’ and fathers’ relationship satisfaction. No significant effects of paternal leave length were found. The difference-in-difference approach revealed a positive reform effect on mothers’ relationship satisfaction. In combination, these results suggest that the reduction in maternal leave as part of the reform has had a greater impact on couples’ relationship quality than the relatively short duration of leave taken by most fathers after the introduction of the individual leave entitlement.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Priscilla Yeye Adumoah Attafuah ◽  
Ninon Amertil ◽  
Jacob Owusu Sarfo ◽  
David Atsu Deegbe ◽  
Delight Nyonator ◽  

Abstract Background and Aim Nurses perception and attitude towards an older patient can positively or negatively influence the quality rendered. As students under training, the views of this population needs to be sought and shaped to improve the quality of care the older patients receive. This is because life expectancy is on the rise. The study aimed to explore students’ perception of ageing and their attitude towards care of the older adults. Methods and materials An exploratory descriptive design was used. Data form containing the sociodemographic attributes of the students and a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers in line with the literature. The participants interviewed were student nurses who had been in clinical practice for at least one semester. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were held. Results Average age of the participants was 22.30 years. An equal number of males and females (15 each) were recruited to have a balance in gender. Students expressed that they saw the older adults as their grandparents so they try to accord them respect and care. However, older adults are perceived not receptive to nurses in training. The students stated that registered nurses neglected the basic care of older adults such as diaper changes, bathing, and feeding, and would rather beckon student nurses to attend to the older adults. Conclusion Gerontology as a stand-alone course is necessary for early years of training to give an in-depth education to nursing students and instil a positive attitude towards older adult patients.

2022 ◽  
Gh.Reza Chalabianloo ◽  
zahra keshtgar ◽  
Gh.Reza Noorazar ◽  
Ahmad Poormohammad

Abstract BackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Most children and adolescents with ADHD have at least some developmental or mental disorders identified from the early years of elementary school. The most common of these are educational and learning problems in these children, which are probably due to the attention deficits of these children. Therefore, it is expected that the cortical activity pattern of ADHD children is different from ADHD comorbid with learning disabilities, which we have examined in this study.MethodsThis study evaluated the pattern of cortical activity in children 6 to 12 years old with ADHD comorbid with and without the reading disorder (ADHD & RD) using 21-channel electroencephalography. Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures in a 2 * 3 * 7 design and T-test was used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe results show that in ADHD children, the activity of different bands increases compared to ADHD comorbid with RD children. In the ADHD group compared to the ADHD comorbid with RD group, the theta/beta ratio in all three regions, especially the anterior region, is higher than the theta/alpha activity in those areas, and this group has significantly higher activity in all three brain regions, especially the anterior region, compared to ADHD comorbid with RD patients.ConclusionsFunctional changes in the left parietal cortex, which is part of the frontoparietal attention network and involved in phonological processing, reading, and calculation, are evident in children with ADHD comorbid with and without the reading disorder (ADHD & RD). However, ADHD without reading disorder shows more activation of the frontoparietal network than ADHD comorbid with reading disorder, and therefore it can be said that ADHD without reading disorder exerts more cognitive control. Therefore, it is likely to be possible to prevent educational problems in these children by using neurofeedback or prescribing drugs that increase the activity of the areas involved in attention.

2022 ◽  
pp. 7-19
Douglas P. Pflug

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-31
Stuart Hargreaves

Abstract Typically one member of a sitting panel of Hong Kong's Court of Final Appeal is a senior jurist drawn from another common law jurisdiction. In the Court's early years, these ‘overseas judges’ were responsible for writing approximately one quarter of the lead opinions across a vast range of cases. This article demonstrates, however, that this practice has changed. The overseas judges now write a smaller share of lead opinions and no longer write lead opinions related to issues of fundamental human rights or the relationship between Hong Kong and the rest of China. This article suggests this change has been made for good reason. Though valid questions about the legitimacy of the role of the overseas judges can be made, they also continue to perform a valuable communicative role regarding the status of Hong Kong's judicial independence under the ‘one country, two systems’ framework. A recent rise in attacks on overseas and other ‘foreign’ judges in Hong Kong can be understood as part of a broader project that seeks to constrain the role of the independent judiciary. By continuing to invite overseas judges to sit on the Court of Final Appeal but reducing their public prominence, the Court has sought not only to reduce avenues for attacks on the legitimacy of particular decisions, but to protect the autonomy and independence of the judiciary more broadly.

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