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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Liang Wang ◽  
Zhiwen Yu ◽  
Bin Guo ◽  
Dingqi Yang ◽  
Lianbo Ma ◽  
...  

In this article, we propose and study a novel data-driven framework for Targeted Outdoor Advertising Recommendation (TOAR) with a special consideration of user profiles and advertisement topics. Given an advertisement query and a set of outdoor billboards with different spatial locations and rental prices, our goal is to find a subset of billboards, such that the total targeted influence is maximum under a limited budget constraint. To achieve this goal, we are facing two challenges: (1) it is difficult to estimate targeted advertising influence in physical world; (2) due to NP hardness, many common search techniques fail to provide a satisfied solution with an acceptable time, especially for large-scale problem settings. Taking into account the exposure strength, advertisement matching degree, and advertising repetition effect, we first build a targeted influence model that can characterize that the advertising influence spreads along with users mobility. Subsequently, based on a divide-and-conquer strategy, we develop two effective approaches, i.e., a master–slave-based sequential optimization method, TOAR-MSS, and a cooperative co-evolution-based optimization method, TOAR-CC, to solve our studied problem. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets clearly validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approaches.


Author(s):  
Ms. Keerti Dixit

Abstract: Cyber-physical systems are the systems that combine the physical world with the world of information processing. CPS involves interaction between heterogeneous components that include electronic chips, software systems, sensors and actuators. It makes the CPS vulnerable to attacks. How to deal with the attacks in CPSs has become a research hotspot. In this paper we have study the Architecture of CPS and various security threats at each layer of the archicture of CPS. We have also developed attack taxonomy for CPS. Keywords: Cyber Physical System, Threat, Attack


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 608
Author(s):  
Cameron Aume ◽  
Keith Andrews ◽  
Shantanu Pal ◽  
Alice James ◽  
Avishkar Seth ◽  
...  

Nowadays, there is tremendous growth in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications in our everyday lives. The proliferation of smart devices, sensors technology, and the Internet makes it possible to communicate between the digital and physical world seamlessly for distributed data collection, communication, and processing of several applications dynamically. However, it is a challenging task to monitor and track objects in real-time due to the distinct characteristics of the IoT system, e.g., scalability, mobility, and resource-limited nature of the devices. In this paper, we address the significant issue of IoT object tracking in real time. We propose a system called ‘TrackInk’ to demonstrate our idea. TrackInk will be capable of pointing toward and taking pictures of visible satellites in the night sky, including but not limited to the International Space Station (ISS) or the moon. Data will be collected from sensors to determine the system’s geographical location along with its 3D orientation, allowing for the system to be moved. Additionally, TrackInk will communicate with and send data to ThingSpeak for further cloud-based systems and data analysis. Our proposed system is lightweight, highly scalable, and performs efficiently in a resource-limited environment. We discuss a detailed system’s architecture and show the performance results using a real-world hardware-based experimental setup.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Author(s):  
Rao Mikkilineni

All living beings use autopoiesis and cognition to manage their “life” processes from birth through death. Autopoiesis enables them to use the specification in their genomes to instantiate themselves using matter and energy transformations. They reproduce, replicate, and manage their stability. Cognition allows them to process information into knowledge and use it to manage its interactions between various constituent parts within the system and its interaction with the environment. Currently, various attempts are underway to make modern computers mimic the resilience and intelligence of living beings using symbolic and sub-symbolic computing. We discuss here the limitations of classical computer science for implementing autopoietic and cognitive behaviors in digital machines. We propose a new architecture applying the general theory of information (GTI) and pave the path to make digital automata mimic living organisms by exhibiting autopoiesis and cognitive behaviors. The new science, based on GTI, asserts that information is a fundamental constituent of the physical world and that living beings convert information into knowledge using physical structures that use matter and energy. Our proposal uses the tools derived from GTI to provide a common knowledge representation from existing symbolic and sub-symbolic computing structures to implement autopoiesis and cognitive behaviors.


Author(s):  
R. Hajji ◽  
A. Kharroubi ◽  
Y. Ben Brahim ◽  
Z. Bahhane ◽  
A. El Ghazouani

Abstract. BIM (Building Information Modeling) is increasingly present in a wide range of applications (architecture, engineering, construction, land use planning, utility management, etc.). BIM allows better management of projects through precise planning, communication and collaboration between several stakeholders as well as facilitating the monitoring of project operations. The emergence of Augmented Reality (AR) technology allows the superposition of (2D, 3D) information directly on the physical world, so generating immersive, interactive and enriching experiences for the user. To take advantages of BIM and AR potential in the interaction and the intuitive management in AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operation) projects, we propose a BIM-based AR workflow through an application called "EasyBIM". This latter allows access and interaction with a BIM model through functionalities for measurement, data consultation, collaboration, visualization and integration of information from sensors. The application is developed for mobile platforms (tablet, smartphone), and has as input an IFC file (Industry Foundation Classes). Promising test results show that the developed solution can be easily integrated into a BIM context for several use cases: marketing, collaboration, site monitoring, facility management, etc.


Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 498
Author(s):  
Abozar Nasirahmadi ◽  
Oliver Hensel

Digitalization has impacted agricultural and food production systems, and makes application of technologies and advanced data processing techniques in agricultural field possible. Digital farming aims to use available information from agricultural assets to solve several existing challenges for addressing food security, climate protection, and resource management. However, the agricultural sector is complex, dynamic, and requires sophisticated management systems. The digital approaches are expected to provide more optimization and further decision-making supports. Digital twin in agriculture is a virtual representation of a farm with great potential for enhancing productivity and efficiency while declining energy usage and losses. This review describes the state-of-the-art of digital twin concepts along with different digital technologies and techniques in agricultural contexts. It presents a general framework of digital twins in soil, irrigation, robotics, farm machineries, and food post-harvest processing in agricultural field. Data recording, modeling including artificial intelligence, big data, simulation, analysis, prediction, and communication aspects (e.g., Internet of Things, wireless technologies) of digital twin in agriculture are discussed. Digital twin systems can support farmers as a next generation of digitalization paradigm by continuous and real-time monitoring of physical world (farm) and updating the state of virtual world.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Jyoti U. Devkota

COVID-19 pandemic has overburdened the public healthcare system around the world. Further, lockdown imposed to curb the spread of pandemic has shown to have an adverse effect on economic and health status of an individual. It has also compelled us to switch from the physical world to virtual world, thus depriving us of benefits of person-to-person direct contact. People from developing countries are specially affected. An average person here lacks basic skills needed to survive in the digital world. Due to limited COVID-19 testing capacities in such countries, there is also less testing. Less testing means less contact tracing, underreported cases, and rapid spread of disease. In this paper, the underreported cases of daily infections and daily deaths are predicted using mathematical models. This is based on daily data published by the Government of Nepal. Here, Kathmandu valley is taken as a model area for estimation of underreporting. The behavior of probability of infection, probability of recovery, and probability of deaths is also mathematically analyzed. A time-dependent susceptible infected and recovered model is also proposed. Here, the second wave of COVID-19 is analyzed in detail from 1 Feb 2021 to 1 June 2021. The effect of lockdown on the psychology of people is also modeled with principal components analysis. The inherent and latent factors affecting the people in lockdown are identified. This is based on detailed primary data collected from a survey of 277 households.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 28-33
Author(s):  
Francesco Restuccia ◽  
Tommaso Melodia

Wireless systems such as the Internet of Things (IoT) are changing the way we interact with the cyber and the physical world. As IoT systems become more and more pervasive, it is imperative to design wireless protocols that can effectively and efficiently support IoT devices and operations. On the other hand, today's IoT wireless systems are based on inflexible designs, which makes them inefficient and prone to a variety of wireless attacks. In this paper, we introduce the new notion of a deep learning-based polymorphic IoT receiver, able to reconfigure its waveform demodulation strategy itself in real time, based on the inferred waveform parameters. Our key innovation is the introduction of a novel embedded deep learning architecture that enables the solution of waveform inference problems, which is then integrated into a generalized hardware/software architecture with radio components and signal processing. Our polymorphic wireless receiver is prototyped on a custom-made software-defined radio platform. We show through extensive over-the-air experiments that the system achieves throughput within 87% of a perfect-knowledge Oracle system, thus demonstrating for the first time that polymorphic receivers are feasible.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 38-42
Author(s):  
Agrim Gupta ◽  
Cédric Girerd ◽  
Manideep Dunna ◽  
Qiming Zhang ◽  
Raghav Subbaraman ◽  
...  

All interactions of objects, humans, and machines with the physical world are via contact forces. For instance, objects placed on a table exert their gravitational forces, and the contact interactions via our hands/feet are guided by the sense of contact force felt by our skin. Thus, the ability to sense the contact forces can allow us to measure all these ubiquitous interactions, enabling a myriad of applications. Furthermore, force sensors are a critical requirement for safer surgeries, which require measuring complex contact forces experienced as a surgical instrument interacts with the surrounding tissues during the surgical procedure. However, with currently available discrete point-force sensors, which require a battery to sense the forces and communicate the readings wirelessly, these ubiquitous sensing and surgical sensing applications are not practical. This motivates the development of new force sensors that can sense, and communicate wirelessly without consuming significant power to enable a battery-free design. In this magazine article, we present WiForce, a low-power wireless force sensor utilizing a joint sensing-communication paradigm. That is, instead of having separate sensing and communication blocks, WiForce directly transduces the force measurements onto variations in wireless signals reflecting WiForce from the sensor. This novel trans-duction mechanism also allows WiForce to generalize easily to a length continuum, where we can detect as well as localize forces acting on the continuum. We fabricate and test our sensor prototype in different scenarios, including testing beneath a tissue phantom, and obtain sub-N sensing and sub-mm localizing accuracies (0.34 N and 0.6 mm, respectively).


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Zixin Lu

The emergence of wireless sensor networks connects the physical world with the information world and changes the way humans interact with nature. With the rapid development of modern information technology, accounting information systems (AIS) have emerged at the historic moment. Under the information environment, accounting data exists in paper or paperless form. The use of information technology not only brings convenient and efficient services to enterprises but also has a huge impact on the internal control of the enterprise. Because the network is open and unstable, the system is vulnerable to illegal intrusion and viruses. Based on the above background, the research content of this article is to use DES algorithm to encrypt accounting data. DES (Data Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm is a symmetric password encryption method. It has the advantages of fast encryption speed, simple and practical algorithm, and consideration of both security and efficiency requirements. This paper discusses the application of DES encryption technology to accounting data processing. To achieve data security management goals. Therefore, this paper proposes a DES algorithm based on the logistic chaotic system. Through experimental simulation, the results show that the chaotic discrete model has initial value sensitivity and iterative nonrepetition. The resulting key space is independent and random. In the application, you can perform random key input according to the performance of software and hardware, which is flexible; there is only one “1186828” in the initial DES algorithm encryption process, but each set of plain text in the improved DES algorithm corresponds to a corresponding set of keys and independence. The test results show that they are maintained between 5 and 6.6. It is proved that using the initial value sensitivity of the logistic system and using the initial value as the key can realize the secure management of accounting data on the premise of ensuring efficiency.


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