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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 288-309
Govindaraj Vengateswari ◽  
Kandhasamy Lalitha ◽  
Muthugounder Subramanian Shivakumar ◽  

Antimicrobial peptides constitute key factors in insect humoral immune response against invading microorganisms. In this study, biochemical approach was identified antimicrobial peptides which appeared in larval hemolymph of Spodoptera litura after bacterial challenge. HPLC profile showed two major peaks in two samples, Brassica oleracea and Ricinus communis fed S. litura that were collected at 5 min interval. It was shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in B. oleracea fed S. litura hemolymph fraction II and R. communis fed S. litura hemolymph fraction I and it also contributes the increased antioxidant, lysozyme, and less hemolytic activity were increase in treated groups. TLC activity was tested with hemolymph extract samples, pink color pots was identified the protein present in the samples. An SDS-PAGE result shows that high expression of antimicrobial peptide present in the treated sample. The appearance of peptides with such different properties in insect hemolymph in response to immune challenge indicates the complexity of the insect immune system.

2022 ◽  
Bradley W.M. Cook ◽  
Kaitlyn Kobasa ◽  
Marielou Tamayo ◽  
Natasha Theriault ◽  
Diane J.R. Gordon Pappas ◽  

Rising SARS-CoV-2 cases, testing delays and the risk of pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic transmission provided the impetus for an in-house rapid testing pro-gram. Employees and their household contacts were encouraged to self-collect saliva samples which were pooled for routine testing using an established colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay. In brief, individual or a maximum of four saliva samples were pooled, heat-inactivated to render microorganisms, especially SARS-CoV-2, non-infectious prior to being added to RT-LAMP assay tubes containing either human sample control gene, RNase P or a region of the SARS-CoV-2 gene, ORF1ab. During the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections in November 2020, two samples from an employee and a member of their household tested positive via RT-LAMP within two days of each other. A delayed clinical qRT-PCR test confirmation of both individuals 5 days later underscores the power of routine rapid testing with within-the-hour turnaround times. Workplace rapid testing programs using RT-LAMP are flexible in their design, have a reduced cost compared to qRT-PCR, may involve non-invasive self-saliva collection for increased safety for the testing personnel, and can be performed with minimal training.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Huan Xu ◽  
Xin Hou ◽  
Lan Chen ◽  
Yang Mei ◽  
Baoping Zhang

Optical properties of wurtzite violet InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures, with the same well-plus-barrier thickness, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates, were investigated using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TDPL) and excitation-power-dependent photoluminescence (PDPL). Two samples were compared: one had a thicker well (InGaN/GaN 3/5 nm); the other had a thicker barrier (InGaN/GaN 2/6 nm). It was found that the GaN barrier thickness in the InGaN/GaN MQWs plays an important role in determining the optical characteristics of the MQWs. The peak energy of the two samples varied with temperature in an S-shape. The thicker-barrier sample had a higher turning point from blueshift to redshift, indicating a stronger localization effect. From the Arrhenius plot of the normalized integrated PL intensity, it was found that the activation energy of the nonradiative process also increased with a thicker barrier thickness. The radiation recombination process was dominated in the sample of the thicker barrier, while the non-radiation process cannot be negligible in the sample of the thicker well.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 262
Venkatesha Narayanaswamy ◽  
Imaddin A. Al-Omari ◽  
Aleksandr S. Kamzin ◽  
Bashar Issa ◽  
Ihab M. Obaidat

Magnetically hard–soft core-shell ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized using an organometallic decomposition method through seed-mediated growth. Two sets of core-shell nanoparticles (S1 and S2) with different shell (Fe3O4) thicknesses and similar core (CoFe2O4) sizes are obtained by varying the initial quantities of seed nanoparticles of size 6.0 ± 1.0 nm. The nanoparticles synthesized have average sizes of 9.5 ± 1.1 (S1) and 12.2 ± 1.7 (S2) nm with corresponding shell thicknesses of 3.5 and 6.1 nm. Magnetic properties are investigated under field-cooled and zero-field-cooled conditions at several temperatures and field cooling values. Magnetic heating efficiency for magnetic hyperthermia applications is investigated by measuring the specific absorption rate (SAR) in alternating magnetic fields at several field strengths and frequencies. The exchange bias is found to have a nonmonotonic and oscillatory relationship with temperature at all fields. SAR values of both core-shell samples are found to be considerably larger than that of the single-phase bare core particles. The effective anisotropy and SAR values are found to be larger in S2 than those in S1. However, the saturation magnetization displays the opposite behavior. These results are attributed to the occurrence of spin-glass regions at the core-shell interface of different amounts in the two samples. The novel outcome is that the interfacial exchange anisotropy of core-shell nanoparticles can be tailored to produce large effective magnetic anisotropy and thus large SAR values.

Nora Trompeter ◽  
Kay Bussey ◽  
Miriam K. Forbes ◽  
Phillipa Hay ◽  
Mandy Goldstein ◽  

AbstractEmotion dysregulation has been posited as a key transdiagnostic factor of mental health difficulties, including eating disorders. However, how this transdiagnostic factor interacts with the disorder-specific factor of weight and shape concerns remains unclear. The current study examined whether emotion dysregulation is associated with eating disorder behaviors over and above the association between weight and shape concerns and whether these two factors interacted. The current study used data from two samples, a community sample of high school students (n = 2699), and a clinical sample of adolescents receiving outpatient treatment for an eating disorder (n = 149). Participants completed self-report measures on their eating behaviors, weight/shape concerns, and emotion dysregulation. Findings showed that emotion dysregulation had a unique association with engaging in binge eating and purging (community sample only). Weight and shape concerns were found to have a unique association with engaging in binge eating, fasting, purging, and driven exercise (community sample only). Additionally, weight and shape concerns moderated the association between emotion dysregulation and the probability of engaging in binge eating and driven exercise, whereby the strongest association between emotion dysregulation and these behaviors were observed among adolescents with the lowest levels of weight and shape concerns. Regarding the frequency of eating disorder behaviors, emotion dysregulation had a unique association with severity of binge eating and fasting. Weight and shape concerns were uniquely associated with severity of fasting and driven exercise (community sample only). Findings suggest that emotion dysregulation is a distinct factor of eating disorder behaviors among adolescents.

2022 ◽  
pp. 156-178
Vladimir Hedrih ◽  
Andjelka Hedrih

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Takashi Ueda ◽  
Yoshio Takesue ◽  
Kazuhiko Nakajima ◽  
Kaoru Ichiki ◽  
Kaori Ishikawa ◽  

Area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)-guided vancomycin treatment is associated with decreased nephrotoxicity. It is preferable to obtain two samples to estimate the AUC. This study examined the usefulness of AUC estimation via trough concentration (Cmin)-only sampling of 260 adults infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) who received vancomycin. The exact Cmin sampling time was used for Bayesian estimation. A significantly higher early treatment response was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 400 µg·h/mL than those with <400 µg·h/mL, and a significantly higher early nephrotoxicity rate was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 600 µg·h/mL than those with <600 µg·h/mL. These AUC cutoff values constituted independent factors for each outcome. In sub-analysis, the discrimination ability for early clinical outcomes using these AUC cutoffs was confirmed only in patients with q12 vancomycin administration. A significant difference in early treatment response using the 400 µg·h/mL cutoff was obtained only in patients with low-risk infections. The usefulness of the vancomycin AUC target to decrease nephrotoxicity while assuring clinical efficacy was even confirmed with a single Cmin measurement. However, assessment with two samples might be required in patients with q24 administration or high/moderate-risk MRSA infections.

2022 ◽  
Pibin Bing ◽  
Guifang Wu ◽  
Qing Liu ◽  
Zhongyang Li ◽  
Lian Tan ◽  

Abstract The optical control ability of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is a distinctive property suitable for improving sensing and plasma performance. This article proposes a dual-core D-channel PCF sensor that can detect two samples simultaneously, which effectively solves the problems of coating difficulty and low wavelength sensitivity. The PCF has four layers of air holes, which dramatically reduces the optical fiber loss and is more conducive to the application of sensors in actual production. In addition, by introducing dual cores on the upper and lower sides of the central air hole, reducing the spacing between the core and the gold nanolayer, a stronger evanescent field can be generated in the cladding air hole. The optical fiber sensor can detect the refractive index of two samples simultaneously with a maximum sensitivity of 21300 nm/RIU. To the best of our knowledge, the sensitivity achieved in this work is the highest sensitivity with the dual sample synchronous detection sensors. The detection range of the refraction index is 1.35-1.41, and the resolution of the sensor is 4.695×10-6. Overall, the sensor will be suitable for medical detection, organic chemical sensing, analyte detection, and other fields.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Polona Rus Prelog ◽  
Teodora Matić ◽  
Peter Pregelj ◽  
Aleksander Sadikov

The spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to numerous negative consequences on the mental health of the population throughout the world. The main aim of our study was to compare the risk for depression, anxiety, and stress during the second wave of the pandemic in Slovenia. An additional goal was to analyze the association of depression, anxiety, and stress, with the most relevant subjective factors that define the quality of life. Furthermore, we aimed at determining whether health workers have a higher risk for depression following the course of the pandemic. The study was conducted on the general population, between July 2020 and January 2021 through an online survey. The data of 1,728 respondents in two samples of respondents (782 at baseline – first measurement point and 946 during the second measurement point) of the second wave were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression and Mann-Whitney U-test. The findings of this study show that the rise the second wave was associated with a higher risk for depression, anxiety and stress. The risk for all three was higher for younger participants. Women showed a higher risk for anxiety and stress. Finances, relationships, and housing dissatisfaction were relevant predictors for depression, anxiety and stress. Health workers in our sample showed a higher risk for stress, but not for depression or anxiety, than the general population. Our findings highlight the urgent need for coordinating and developing mental health services and tailored interventions to reduce the mental health burden, especially in the younger.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rosanne M. Smits ◽  
Dieuwke S. Veldhuijzen ◽  
Henriët van Middendorp ◽  
Marianne J. E. van der Heijden ◽  
Monique van Dijk ◽  

Objectives: Placebo effects, beneficial treatment outcomes due to non-active treatment components, play an important role in the overall treatment response. To facilitate these beneficial effects it is important to explore the perspectives of health care professionals (HCPs) on the integration of placebo effects in clinical care. Three themes were investigated: knowledge about placebo effects and factors that contribute to these, frequency of placebo use, and attitudes toward acceptability and transparency of placebo use in treatment.Methods: A cross-sectional survey, according to the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys guidelines and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE), was conducted in the Netherlands in 2020. The survey was conducted in two samples: a (nested) short survey in 78 nurses during working shifts (sample 1) and an extended online survey in 47 general HCPs e.g., medical psychologists, oncologists, surgeons (sample 2).Results: Respondents from both samples reported to be somewhat or quite familiar with placebo effects (24.0 and 47.2%, respectively). From the six placebo mechanisms that were presented, mind-body interaction, positive expectations, and brain activity involved in placebo effects were rated as the most influential factors in placebo effects [F(5,119) = 20.921, p &lt; 0.001]. The use of placebo effects was reported in 53.8% (n = 42) of the nurses (e.g., by inducing positive expectations), and 17.4% of the HCPs (n = 8 reported to make use of pure placebos and 30.4% of impure placebos (n = 14). Attitudes toward placebo use in treatment were acceptant, and transparency was highly valued (both up to 51%).Conclusions: The findings from this study address knowledge gaps in placebo effects in practice and provide insights in attitudes toward the integration of placebo effects from HCPs. Altogether, integrating these findings may potentially optimize treatment outcomes.

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