cognitive control
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2022 ◽  
Vol 300 ◽  
pp. 158-171
Elizabeth J. Edwards ◽  
Dajana Zec ◽  
Marilyn Campbell ◽  
Kristof Hoorelbeke ◽  
Ernst H.W. Koster ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 215 ◽  
pp. 105319
Anne-Merel Meijer ◽  
Bart Aben ◽  
Bert Reynvoet ◽  
Eva Van den Bussche

2022 ◽  
Fatemeh Tabassi Mofrad ◽  
Niels O. Schiller

The cytoarchitectonically tripartite organization of the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) into the rostral, the middle and the caudal clusters has been generally ignored when associating different functions to this part of the cortex, resulting in inconsistencies about how IPC is understood. In this study, we investigated the patterns of functional connectivity of the caudal IPC in a task requiring cognitive control of language, using multiband EPI. This part of the cortex demonstrated functional connectivity patterns dissimilar to a cognitive control area and at the same time the caudal IPC showed negative functional associations with both task-related brain areas and the precuneus cortex, which is active during resting state. We found evidence suggesting that the traditional categorization of different brain areas into either task-related or resting state-related networks cannot accommodate the functions of the caudal IPC. This underlies the hypothesis about a modulating cortical area proposing that its involvement in task performance, in a modulating manner, is marked by deactivation in the patterns of functional associations with parts of the brain that are recognized to be involved in doing a task, proportionate to task difficulty; however, their patterns of functional connectivity in some other respects do not correspond to the resting state-related parts of the cortex.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Jean Gagnon ◽  
Joyce Emma Quansah ◽  
Paul McNicoll

Research on cognitive processes has primarily focused on cognitive control and inhibitory processes to the detriment of other psychological processes, such as defense mechanisms (DMs), which can be used to modify aggressive impulses as well as self/other images during interpersonal conflicts. First, we conducted an in-depth theoretical analysis of three socio-cognitive models and three psychodynamic models and compared main propositions regarding the source of aggression and processes that influence its enactment. Second, 32 participants completed the Hostile Expectancy Violation Paradigm (HEVP) in which scenarios describe a hostile vs. non-hostile social context followed by a character's ambiguous aversive behavior. The N400 effect to critical words that violate expected hostile vs. non-hostile intent of the behavior was analyzed. Prepotent response inhibition was measured using a Stop Signal task (SST) and DMs were assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-60). Results showed that reactive aggression and HIA were not significantly correlated with response inhibition but were significantly positively and negatively correlated with image distorting defense style and adaptive defense style, respectively. The present article has highlighted the importance of integrating socio-cognitive and psychodynamic models to account for the full complexity underlying psychological processes that influence reactive aggressive behavior.

Kazuho Kojima ◽  
Shigeki Hirano ◽  
Yasuyuki Kimura ◽  
Chie Seki ◽  
Yoko Ikoma ◽  

AbstractThe tendency to avoid punishment, called behavioral inhibition system, is an essential aspect of motivational behavior. Behavioral inhibition system is related to negative affect, such as anxiety, depression and pain, but its neural basis has not yet been clarified. To clarify the association between individual variations in behavioral inhibition system and brain 5-HT2A receptor availability and specify which brain networks were involved in healthy male subjects, using [18F]altanserin positron emission tomography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral inhibition system score negatively correlated with 5-HT2A receptor availability in anterior cingulate cortex. A statistical model indicated that the behavioral inhibition system score was associated with 5-HT2A receptor availability, which was mediated by the functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, both of which involved in the cognitive control of negative information processing. Individuals with high behavioral inhibition system displays low 5-HT2A receptor availability in anterior cingulate cortex and this cognitive control network links with prefrontal-cingulate integrity. These findings have implications for underlying the serotonergic basis of physiologies in aversion.

2022 ◽  
Brad A. Racette ◽  
Gill Nelson ◽  
Wendy W. Dlamini ◽  
Tamara Hershey ◽  
Pradeep Prathibha ◽  

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