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2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 153-161
Xiaoqi Sun ◽  
Suzanne H.W. So ◽  
Lawrence K.H. Chung ◽  
Chui-De Chiu ◽  
Raymond C.K. Chan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Marc-Antoine Landry ◽  
Kumar Kumaran ◽  
Juzer M. Tyebkhan ◽  
Valerie Levesque ◽  
Marcello Spinella

Abstract Background Parents of babies admitted to the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU) undergo considerable stress. There is evidence that mindfulness reduces stress in these parents. Kangaroo Care (KC) is practiced in NICUs across the world and is stress-relieving. Whether mindfulness practiced during KC in the NICU reduces parental distress has not yet been studied. The objective was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of teaching and practicing mindfulness during KC for mothers of premature babies. The objective was also to document preliminary outcomes of Mindful Kangaroo Care (MKC) on maternal stress, anxiety, depression, and mindful awareness. Methods In this pilot randomized controlled study, mothers of premature babies who were expected to stay in the NICU for at least four weeks were taught two mindfulness exercises to practice during KC and compared to mothers who received standard care with no mindfulness teaching. Mothers filled out stress, anxiety, depression and mindful awareness scales at recruitment and after four weeks. Acceptability and feasibility questionnaires were also completed. Results Fifteen mothers per group completed the study. The MKC group demonstrated a significant within-group reduction in anxiety (p = 0.003), depression (p = 0.02) and stress (p = 0.002), and a significant increase in both the curiosity (p = 0.008) and decentering (p = 0.01) scores of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale, all of which had medium to large effect sizes. Only the increases in curiosity and decentering were significant between groups. Fourteen mothers found the intervention acceptable, one neutral. Conclusion MKC was acceptable, feasible and led to a reduction in stress, anxiety and depression in mothers who practiced mindfulness exercises during KC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 93-97
Linus Francis ◽  
Davis Manuel

Background: This study was designed to find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in school-going children with epilepsy.Methods:All the patients with epilepsy presenting during the study period underwent detailed clinical and EEG evaluation. Hospital Anxiety and Depression score (HADS) was used to screen for anxiety and depression.Results:We identified 190 patients with epilepsy during the study period. Out of these 30 (15.8%) were diagnosed as having treatment resistance epilepsy. Anxiety was diagnosed in 114 (60%) and depression in 62 (32.6%). Patients with drug resistant epilepsy were found to have statistically significant markers in the form of higher scores for depression and anxiety, and lower IQ scores. Frequency of GTCS (Generaized Tonic Clonic Seizures) showed inverse correlation with IQ scores and direct correlation to the anxiety/depression scores.Conclusion:We conclude that anxiety and depression in school-going children with epilepsy is common and that it has a correlation with treatment resistance.

Lindsey W. Vilca ◽  
Blanca V. Chávez ◽  
Yoselin Shara Fernández ◽  
Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez ◽  
Michael White

2022 ◽  
pp. 109980042110635
Maria Dyah Kurniasari ◽  
Karen A. Monsen ◽  
Shuen Fu Weng ◽  
Chyn Yng Yang ◽  
Hsiu Ting Tsai

Background: Gout arthritis is an autoinflammatory arthritis that generates chronic long-term pain. Pain impacts physical activities, joint mobility, stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Cold-water immersion therapy reduces inflammation and pain associated with gout arthritis. However, cold-water immersion therapy has not been conducted among people worldwide with gout arthritis. Objective: To investigate the cold-water immersion intervention on pain, joint mobility, physical activity, stress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life among acute gout patients. Methods: A community-based randomized control trial design with two parallel-intervention groups: a cold-water immersion group (20–30°C 20 minutes/day for 4 weeks) and a control group. In total, 76 eligible participants in Tomohon City, Indonesia, were recruited using a multi-stage sampling method and were randomly assigned using block randomization. A generalized estimating equation model was used to analyze the results (coef. β) and produce 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A path analysis was used to analyze mediating effects. Results: Significant pain alleviation ( β = −2.06; −2.42), improved joint mobility ( β = 1.20, 1.44), physical activity ( β = 2.05, .59), stress ( β = −1.25; −1.35), anxiety ( β = −.62; −1.37), and quality of life ( β = 5.34; 9.93) were detected after cold-water immersion at the second-week, and were maintained to the fourth-week time point, compared to pre-intervention and the control group. Depression ( β = −1.80) had decreased by the fourth week compared to the pre-test and control group. Cold-water immersion directly mediated alleviation of pain ( β = −.46, p ≤ .001) and to promote the quality of life ( β = .16, p = .01). Conclusions: Cold-water immersion decreased pain, stress, anxiety, and depression, and increased joint mobility, physical activity, and quality of life. It mediated alleviation of pain to increase the quality of life.

2022 ◽  
Andrew M Watson ◽  
Kevin Biese ◽  
Claudia Reardon ◽  
Allison Schwarz ◽  
Kristin Haraldsdottir ◽  

The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity (PA) increases were responsible for the improvements in mental health and quality of life (QOL) seen among adolescents who returned to sport during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescent athletes were asked to complete a survey in October 2020 regarding demographic information, whether they had returned to sport participation (no [DNP], yes [PLY]), school instruction type (virtual, in-person, hybrid), anxiety, depression, QOL, and PA. Anxiety, depression, QOL and PA were compared between PLY and DNP using least squares means from linear models adjusted for age, gender, and instruction type. Mediation analysis assessed whether the relationship between sport status and anxiety, depression, and QOL was mediated by PA. 171 athletes had returned to play, while 388 had not. PLY athletes had significantly lower anxiety (3.6 +/- 0.4 v 8.2 +/- 0.6, p < 0.001) and depression (4.2 +/- 0.4 v 7.3 +/- 0.6, p < 0.001), and significantly higher QOL (88.1 +/- 1.0 v 80.2 +/- 1.4, p < 0.001) and PA (24.0 +/- 0.5 v 16.3 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001). PA explained a significant, but relatively small portion of the difference in depression (22.1%, p = 0.02) and QOL (16.0%, p = 0.048) between PLY and DNP athletes, but did not explain the difference in anxiety (6.6%, p = 0.20). Increased PA is only responsible for a small portion of the improvements in depression and QOL among athletes who returned to sports and unrelated to improvements in anxiety. This suggests that the majority of the mental health benefits of sport participation for adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic are independent of, and in addition to, the benefits of increased PA.

Kazuho Kojima ◽  
Shigeki Hirano ◽  
Yasuyuki Kimura ◽  
Chie Seki ◽  
Yoko Ikoma ◽  

AbstractThe tendency to avoid punishment, called behavioral inhibition system, is an essential aspect of motivational behavior. Behavioral inhibition system is related to negative affect, such as anxiety, depression and pain, but its neural basis has not yet been clarified. To clarify the association between individual variations in behavioral inhibition system and brain 5-HT2A receptor availability and specify which brain networks were involved in healthy male subjects, using [18F]altanserin positron emission tomography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral inhibition system score negatively correlated with 5-HT2A receptor availability in anterior cingulate cortex. A statistical model indicated that the behavioral inhibition system score was associated with 5-HT2A receptor availability, which was mediated by the functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, both of which involved in the cognitive control of negative information processing. Individuals with high behavioral inhibition system displays low 5-HT2A receptor availability in anterior cingulate cortex and this cognitive control network links with prefrontal-cingulate integrity. These findings have implications for underlying the serotonergic basis of physiologies in aversion.

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