Exosomes derived from tumor cells contain various molecular components, such as proteins, RNA, DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates. These components play a crucial role in all stages of tumorigenesis and development. Moreover, they reflect the physiological and pathological status of parental tumor cells. Recently, tumor-derived exosomes have become popular biomarkers for non-invasive liquid biopsy and the diagnosis of numerous cancers. The interdisciplinary significance of exosomes research has also attracted growing enthusiasm. However, the intrinsic nature of tumor-derived exosomes requires advanced methods to detect and evaluate the complex biofluid. This review analyzes the relationship between exosomes and tumors. It also summarizes the exosomal biological origin, composition, and application of molecular markers in clinical cancer diagnosis. Remarkably, this paper constitutes a comprehensive summary of the innovative research on numerous detection strategies for tumor-derived exosomes with the intent of providing a theoretical basis and reference for early diagnosis and clinical treatment of cancer.
Prostate cancer is one of the major malignancies that threaten men’s health all over the world. Due to the lack of specific symptoms and signs in the early stage, as well as the limitations of existing detection methods, it is difficult to achieve early diagnosis for prostate cancer. As short single-stranded oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) with specific 3D structure which can be produced using an in vitro selection process termed systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), aptamers can specifically bind to the corresponding targets. They have become a class of novel targeting ligand for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of cancer. Owing to distinctive physicochemical features, and some other special properties such as easy modifiability, good biocompatibility, being easily coupled with other ligands, nanomaterials are extensively used in biological medical field research. Enlighteningly, the combination of aptamers with nanomaterials, including metal nanoparticles, nanosilica, quantum dots, and carbon nanomaterials, can enhance the ability of nanomaterials to recognize tumor cells, which is beneficial to overcome the shortcomings such as low sensitivity in early detection and lack of specificity of traditional antineoplastic drugs, thus, clinically helpful to improve the early metaphase diagnosis rate, providing a technical guarantee for the “personalized treatment” strategy for prostate cancer. Herein, we mainly review the basic and applied research of aptamer functionalized nanocomposite in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, including biosensing, bioimaging, and cancer therapy, hoping to provide new ideas for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Background. Cancer diagnosis entails substantial psychological distress and is associated with dramatically increased risks of suicidal behaviors. However, little is known about the suicide risk among cancer survivors who developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Methods. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we conducted a population-based cohort study involving 7,824,709 patients with first malignant neoplasm (FMN). We measured the hazard ratios (HRs) of suicide death after receiving a SMN diagnosis using Cox proportional hazard models, as compared with patients with FMN. The comparison with the US population was achieved by calculating standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Results. Totally 685,727 FMN patients received a diagnosis of SMN during follow-up, and we in total identified 10,930 and 937 suicide deaths among FMN and SMN patients, respectively. The HR of suicide deaths was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14–1.31) after a SMN diagnosis, compared with FMN patients, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tumor characteristics, and cancer treatment. As compared with the general population, while both SMN and FMN patients suffered an increased risk of suicide deaths, the excess risk was higher among SMN patients than FMN patients (age-, sex-, and calendar-year-adjusted SMR 1.65 (95% CI 1.54–1.75) vs. 1.29 (95% CI 1.26–1.31);
). Notably, across different time periods, we observed the greatest risk elevation during the first 3 months after a cancer diagnosis. Conclusions. Compared with either patients with FMN or the general population, cancer survivors who received a SMN diagnosis were at increased risk of suicide death. The risk elevation was most prominent soon after the cancer diagnosis, highlighting the necessity of providing timely psychological support to cancer survivors with a SMN.