Critical Role
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2021 ◽  
Vol 47 ◽  
Deon J. Kleynhans ◽  
Marita M. Heyns ◽  
Marius W. Stander

Orientation: In a business context characterised by precariousness and uncertainty, the importance of trusting leader-follower relationships is becoming critical to navigate imminent challenges preventing organisational sustainability and progress. The potential negative impact of related challenges could be reduced by encouraging leaders to adopt an authentic leadership style, culminating in various positive employee and organisational outcomes.Research purpose: This study investigated the impact of authentic leadership (AL) on follower trust in the leader (TL), while considering the possible indirect influence of perceived precariousness in the form of job insecurity.Motivation for the study: Establishing a high level of trust among the followers and their leaders employed by a manufacturing organisation under operational and financial pressure might contribute to a more effective functioning of the entity.Research approach/design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design was applied. The Authentic Leadership Inventory, Workplace Trust Survey, and Job Insecurity Scale were administered.Main findings: Authentic leadership was a significant predictor of TL. Job insecurity did not moderate the relationship between AL and TL.Practical/managerial implications: Promoting an AL style will benefit manufacturing organisations as it will elevate the trustful relationship between leaders and followers, despite precarious working conditions.Contribution/value-add: The study emphasises AL’s critical role in cultivating a trustful relationship between followers and their leaders. The non-significant influence of job insecurity on a trustful relationship in a precarious work context was also highlighted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Lance T. Denes ◽  
Chase P. Kelley ◽  
Eric T. Wang

AbstractWhile the importance of RNA localization in highly differentiated cells is well appreciated, basic principles of RNA localization in skeletal muscle remain poorly characterized. Here, we develop a method to detect and quantify single molecule RNA localization patterns in skeletal myofibers, and uncover a critical role for directed transport of RNPs in muscle. We find that RNAs localize and are translated along sarcomere Z-disks, dispersing tens of microns from progenitor nuclei, regardless of encoded protein function. We find that directed transport along the lattice-like microtubule network of myofibers becomes essential to achieve this localization pattern as muscle development progresses; disruption of this network leads to extreme accumulation of RNPs and nascent protein around myonuclei. Our observations suggest that global active RNP transport may be required to distribute RNAs in highly differentiated cells and reveal fundamental mechanisms of gene regulation, with consequences for myopathies caused by perturbations to RNPs or microtubules.

2021 ◽  
pp. 234763112110498
Parimala Veluvali ◽  
Jayesh Surisetti

Online education helped resume learning that had come to a momentary and uncertain pause with the onset of COVID-19 pandemic across the globe. Since then, learning in many educational institutions continued through synchronous and asynchronous modes, with teaching being undertaken remotely on digital platforms. In this large-scale migration towards online mode of curriculum delivery induced by the pandemic, the institutional learning management system (LMS) had a critical role to play in ensuring uninterrupted learning and student engagement. By drawing heavily from extant works, learnings from MOOC platforms, observations from the LMS applications in corporate training, the present article synthesis the extant literature on how the effective use of LMS can make the learning process interactive, student centric, catering to the needs of diverse learners in higher education.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Panpan Chang ◽  
Hao Li ◽  
Hui Hu ◽  
Yongqing Li ◽  
Tianbing Wang

Autophagy fights against harmful stimuli and degrades cytosolic macromolecules, organelles, and intracellular pathogens. Autophagy dysfunction is associated with many diseases, including infectious and inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the critical role of the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes activation in the innate immune system, which mediates the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β/IL-18 and cleaves Gasdermin D to induce pyroptosis in response to pathogenic and sterile stimuli. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the crosstalk between autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome in multifaceted ways to influence host defense and inflammation. However, the underlying mechanisms require further clarification. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a class IIb deacetylase among the 18 mammalian HDACs, which mainly localizes in the cytoplasm. It is involved in two functional deacetylase domains and a ubiquitin-binding zinc finger domain (ZnF-BUZ). Due to its unique structure, HDAC6 regulates various physiological processes, including autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome, and may play a role in the crosstalk between them. In this review, we provide insight into the mechanisms by which HDAC6 regulates autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome and we explored the possibility and challenges of HDAC6 in the crosstalk between autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome. Finally, we discuss HDAC6 inhibitors as a potential therapeutic approach targeting either autophagy or NLRP3 inflammasome as an anti-inflammatory strategy, although further clarification is required regarding their crosstalk.

2021 ◽  
Minna Tuominen ◽  
Jenni Tikkanen

Introduction: Social capital is a valuable asset that spawns multiple benefits, but little is known about its origins. This study narrows the gap by exploring the extent to which adolescents’ social capital is shaped by their parents’ social capital, the socioeconomic status (SES) of their families, or that of their neighbourhood. The study also explores which dimensions of adolescent social capital are most sensitive to intergenerational or socioeconomic influence.Methods: The study uses survey data gathered from adolescents aged 12–13 years and their parents (n = 167) in Southwest Finland. For the analysis, adolescents’ social capital was disaggregated into four dimensions: social networks, social trust, tendency to receive help, and tendency to provide help. For each dimension, the associations with the hypothesised predictors were analysed separately using structural equation modelling. Results: The results suggest that parents’ social capital is the most influential predictor to each dimension of adolescents’ social capital establishing stronger associations as compared to the other two predictors. However, it is not the parents’ actual social capital as they report themselves, but their offspring’s perception of their social behaviour. Family’s SES relates to young people’s reciprocal tendency and level of trust only indirectly through parents’ social capital. Conversely, a disadvantaged socioeconomic neighbourhood is directly negatively associated with adolescents’ level of trust and frequency of receiving help. Conclusions: This study suggests that social capital is distinctly, although not exclusively, an intergenerational resource. Parents are critical role models for adolescent children.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258981
Elizabeth Thomas ◽  
Roslyn D. Noar ◽  
Margaret E. Daub

Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal agent of the highly destructive black Sigatoka disease of banana. Previous research has focused on polyketide synthase gene clusters in the fungus, given the importance of polyketide pathways in related plant pathogenic fungi. A time course study of expression of the previously identified PKS7-1, PKS8-2, and PKS10-2 gene clusters showed high expression of all three PKS genes and the associated clustered genes in infected banana plants from 2 weeks post-inoculation through 9 weeks. Engineered transformants silenced for PKS8-2 and PKS10-2 were developed and tested for pathogenicity. Inoculation of banana plants with silencing transformants for PKS10-2 showed significant reduction in disease symptoms and severity that correlated with the degree of silencing in the conidia used for inoculation, supporting a critical role for PKS10-2 in disease development. Unlike PKS10-2, a clear role for PKS8-2 could not be determined. Two of four PKS8-2 silencing transformants showed reduced disease development, but disease did not correlate with the degree of PKS8-2 silencing in the transformants. Overall, the degree of silencing obtained for the PKS8-2 transformants was less than that obtained for the PKS10-2 transformants, which may have limited the utility of the silencing strategy to identify a role for PKS8-2 in disease. Orthologous PKS10-2 clusters had previously been identified in the related banana pathogens Pseudocercospora musae and Pseudocercospora eumusae. Genome analysis identified orthologous gene clusters to that of PKS10-2 in the newly sequenced genomes of Pseudocercospora fuligena and Pseudocercospora cruenta, pathogens of tomato and cowpea, respectively. Our results support an important role for the PKS10-2 polyketide pathway in pathogenicity of Pseudocercospora fijiensis, and suggest a possible role for this pathway in disease development by other Pseudocercospora species.

2021 ◽  
Qiuping Cheng ◽  
Zhili Han ◽  
Shun Liu ◽  
Yilong Kong ◽  
Xuchu Weng ◽  

Abstract The judgments of moral goodness and moral beauty objectively refer to the perception and evaluation of moral traits, which are generally influenced by facial attractiveness. For centuries, people have equated beauty with the possession of positive qualities, but it is not clear whether the association between beauty and positive qualities exerts a similarly implicit influence on people`s responses to moral goodness and moral beauty, how it affects those responses, and what is the neural basis for such an effect. The present study is the first to examine the neural responses to facial attractiveness in the judgments of moral goodness and moral beauty. We found that beautiful faces in both moral judgments activated the left ventral occipitotemporal cortices sensitive to the geometric configuration of the faces, demonstrating that both moral goodness and moral beauty required the automatic visual analysis of geometrical configuration of attractive faces. In addition, compared to beautiful faces during moral goodness judgment, beautiful faces during moral beauty judgment induced unique activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and midline cortical structures involved in the emotional-valenced information about attractive faces. The opposite comparison elicited specific activity in the left superior temporal cortex and premotor area, which play a critical role in the recognition of facial identity. Our results demonstrated that the neural responses to facial attractiveness in the process of higher order moral decision-makings exhibits both task-general and task-specific characteristics. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the essence of the relationship between morality and aesthetics.

2021 ◽  
Chao Ma ◽  
Xiaobo Wang ◽  
Wanli W Smith ◽  
Zhaohui Liu

Abstract BackgroundRecently, four Parkinson’s disease (PD)-linked mutations (Y92C, R141L, 184PGext*5 and 184Wext*5) in transmembrane protein 230 (TMEM230) were identified in PD patients, and these mutations have implications in protein trafficking and neurodegeneration. However, there is a lack of in vivo studies on the roles of PD-related variants of TMEM230 in PD pathogenesis.MethodsIn this study, we generated human wild-type (WT) and mutant TMEM230 (Y92C, R141L, 184PGext*5 and 184Wext*5) transgenic Drosophila using isoform Ⅱ cDNA. ResultsWe found that the expression of TMEM230 184PGext*5 in pan-neurons or dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila induced PD-like phenotypes, which included impaired locomotor ability, a shortened lifespan, reduced TH levels, and increased phosphorylated JNK and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Moreover, rotenone, a common pesticide, enhanced TMEM230-184PGext*5-induced PD-like phenotypes. In contrast, the overexpression of wild-type (WT) VPS35 rescued TMEM230-184PGext*5-induced PD-like phenotypes, while the knockdown of VPS35 by RNA interference (RNAi) or the expression of mutant VPS35 D620N worsened PD-like phenotypes. ConclusionThese results indicate that VPS35, as a downstream effector of TMEM230, plays a critical role in TMEM230-linked JNK/caspase-3 signalling pathways and that mutations in TMEM230 and VPS35 disrupt these pathways, resulting in dopaminergic neurodegeneration and PD-like phenotypes. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of mutant TME230- and VPS35-induced abnormalities underlying the pathogenesis of PD.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Ebba Sohlberg ◽  
Aline Pfefferle ◽  
Eivind Heggernes Ask ◽  
Astrid Tschan-Plessl ◽  
Benedikt Jacobs ◽  

Neutrophils have been suggested to play a critical role in terminal differentiation of NK cells. Whether this is a direct effect or a consequence of global immune changes with effects on NK cell homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we used high-resolution flow- and mass cytometry to examine NK cell repertoires in 64 patients with neutropenia and 27 healthy age- and gender-matched donors. A subgroup of patients with chronic neutropenia showed severely disrupted NK cell homeostasis manifested as increased frequencies of CD56bright NK cells and a lack of mature CD56dim NK cells. These immature NK cell repertoires were characterized by expression of proliferation/exhaustion markers Ki-67, Tim-3 and TIGIT and displayed blunted tumor target cell responses. Systems-level immune mapping revealed that the changes in immunophenotypes were confined to NK cells, leaving T cell differentiation intact. RNA sequencing of NK cells from these patients showed upregulation of a network of genes, including TNFSF9, CENPF, MKI67 and TOP2A, associated with apoptosis and the cell cycle, different from conventional CD56bright signatures. Profiling of 249 plasma proteins showed a coordinated enrichment of pathways related to apoptosis and cell turnover, which correlated with immature NK cell repertoires. Notably, most of these patients exhibited severe-grade neutropenia, suggesting that the profoundly altered NK cell homeostasis was connected to the severity of their underlying etiology. Hence, although our data suggests that neutrophils are dispensable for NK cell development and differentiation, some patients displayed a specific gap in the NK repertoire, associated with poor cytotoxic function and more severe disease manifestations.

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