Screen content, which is often computer-generated, has many characteristics distinctly different from conventional camera-captured natural scene content. Such characteristic differences impose major challenges to the corresponding content quality assessment, which plays a critical role to ensure and improve the final user-perceived quality of experience (QoE) in various screen content communication and networking systems. Quality assessment of such screen content has attracted much attention recently, primarily because the screen content grows explosively due to the prevalence of cloud and remote computing applications in recent years, and due to the fact that conventional quality assessment methods can not handle such content effectively. As the most technology-oriented part of QoE modeling, image/video content/media quality assessment has drawn wide attention from researchers, and a large amount of work has been carried out to tackle the problem of screen content quality assessment. This article is intended to provide a systematic and timely review on this emerging research field, including (1) background of natural scene vs. screen content quality assessment; (2) characteristics of natural scene vs. screen content; (3) overview of screen content quality assessment methodologies and measures; (4) relevant benchmarks and comprehensive evaluation of the state-of-the-art; (5) discussions on generalizations from screen content quality assessment to QoE assessment, and other techniques beyond QoE assessment; and (6) unresolved challenges and promising future research directions. Throughout this article, we focus on the differences and similarities between screen content and conventional natural scene content. We expect that this review article shall provide readers with an overview of the background, history, recent progress, and future of the emerging screen content quality assessment research.
Abstract Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings’ body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.
The increased popularity of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) combined with the difficulty of grafting have limited supplies of grafted trees in the United States. From 2011 to 2020, grafting was practiced for cultivar amplification after importation and cultivar trials in frost-prone northern New Mexico. Grafting success was related to not only grafting techniques but also climate factors. Bark grafting, whip/tongue grafting, and cleft grafting were commonly used in nurseries. Low temperatures had a critical role in jujube grafting success in marginal regions and were more important than the grafting technique. If frost occurs before or near the leafing time, then grafting should be delayed until the rootstocks are determined to be healthy and alive. If frost occurs after grafting, then grafting failure and/or thin and small plant percentages increased. If only branchlets appear after grafting, then pinching branchlets could stimulate new shoot growth.
This review summarizes the structure and function of the alveolar unit, comprised of alveolar macrophage and epithelial cell types that work in tandem to respond to infection. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) helps to maintain the alveolar epithelium and pulmonary immune system under physiological conditions and plays a critical role in restoring homeostasis under pathologic conditions, including infection. Given the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome, understanding basic lung physiology in infectious diseases is especially warranted. This review summarizes clinical and preclinical data for GM-CSF in respiratory infections, and the rationale for sargramostim (yeast-derived recombinant human [rhu] GM-CSF) as adjunctive treatment for COVID-19 and other pulmonary infectious diseases.
Insulin resistance is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), type II diabetes (T2D), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicates that these disorders are typically characterized by alterations in the gut microbiota composition, diversity, and their metabolites. Currently, it is understood that environmental hazards including ionizing radiation, toxic heavy metals, pesticides, particle matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are capable of interacting with gut microbiota and have a non-beneficial health effect. Based on the current study, we propose the hypothesis of “gut microenvironment baseline drift”. According to this “baseline drift” theory, gut microbiota is a temporarily combined cluster of species sharing the same environmental stresses for a short period, which would change quickly under the influence of different environmental factors. This indicates that the microbial species in the gut do not have a long-term relationship; any split, division, or recombination may occur in different environments. Nonetheless, the “baseline drift” theory considers the critical role of the response of the whole gut microbiome. Undoubtedly, this hypothesis implies that the gut microbiota response is not merely a “cross junction” switch; in contrast, the human health or disease is a result of a rich palette of gut-microbiota-driven multiple-pathway responses. In summary, environmental factors, including hazardous and normal factors, are critical to the biological impact of the gut microbiota responses and the dual effect of the gut microbiota on the regulation of biological functions. Novel appreciation of the role of gut microbiota and environmental hazards in the insulin resistance would shed new light on insulin resistance and also promote the development of new research direction and new overcoming strategies for patients.
Effective treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) remains an open challenge. Given the critical role of the immune microenvironment in the progression of cancers, we aimed to develop an immune-related gene (IRG) signature for predicting prognosis and improving the current treatment paradigm of GBM. Multi-omics data were collected, and various bioinformatics methods, as well as machine learning algorithms, were employed to construct and validate the IRG-based signature and to explore the characteristics of the immune microenvironment of GBM. A five-gene signature (ARPC1B, FCGR2B, NCF2, PLAUR, and S100A11) was identified based on the expression of IRGs, and an effective prognostic risk model was developed. The IRG-based risk model had superior time-dependent prognostic performance compared to well-studied molecular pathology markers. Besides, we found prominent inflamed features in the microenvironment of the high-risk group, including neutrophil infiltration, immune checkpoint expression, and activation of the adaptive immune response, which may be associated with increased hypoxia, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild type, and necrosis. Notably, the IRG-based risk model had the potential to predict the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Together, our study offers insights into the immune microenvironment of GBM and provides useful information for clinical management of this desperate disease.