Climate Factors
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
András Bota ◽  
Martin Holmberg ◽  
Lauren Gardner ◽  
Martin Rosvall

AbstractIdentifying the critical factors related to influenza spreading is crucial in predicting and mitigating epidemics. Specifically, uncovering the relationship between epidemic onset and various risk indicators such as socioeconomic, mobility and climate factors can reveal locations and travel patterns that play critical roles in furthering an outbreak. We study the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza outbreaks in Sweden’s municipalities between 2009 and 2015 and use the Generalized Inverse Infection Method (GIIM) to assess the most significant contributing risk factors. GIIM represents an epidemic spreading process on a network: nodes correspond to geographical objects, links indicate travel routes, and transmission probabilities assigned to the links guide the infection process. Our results reinforce existing observations that the influenza outbreaks considered in this study were driven by the country’s largest population centers, while meteorological factors also contributed significantly. Travel and other socioeconomic indicators have a negligible effect. We also demonstrate that by training our model on the 2009 outbreak, we can predict the epidemic onsets in the following five seasons with high accuracy.


Author(s):  
Kimberly Keith ◽  
Kristofer Årestedt ◽  
Ivar Tjernberg

Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Kalmar County, in southern Sweden, between 2008 and 2019, and to analyse the relationship between the LNB incidence and climate factors. Data containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts and borrelia CSF/serum antibody index results was received from the departments of clinical chemistry and microbiology at Kalmar County hospital. For this study, we defined LNB as a case with a positive borrelia antibody CSF/serum index and CSF leukocytes > 5 × 106/L. Climate data including mean temperature, humidity and precipitation covering Kalmar County was collected from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. A total of 5051 paired serum-CSF samples from 4835 patients were investigated of which 251 laboratory LNB cases were found. The average annual LNB incidence in Kalmar County 2008–2019 was 8.8 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Positive relationships were observed between mean temperature and LNB incidence (p < 0.001) as well as precipitation and LNB incidence (p = 0.003), both with a one calendar month delay. The results suggest an association between climate factors such as mean temperature and precipitation and LNB incidence, presumably through increased/decreased human-tick interactions. This calls for increased awareness of LNB in both the short perspective after periods of warmth and heavy precipitation as well as in a longer perspective in relation to possible climate change. Further studies with larger study groups, covering other geographical areas and over longer periods of time are needed to confirm these findings.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1225
Author(s):  
Hae-Kun Jung ◽  
S. M. Mustafizur Rahman ◽  
Hee-Chan Choi ◽  
Joo-Myun Park ◽  
Chung-Il Lee

The western part of East/Japan Sea (WES) is an important area for understanding climate change processes and interactions between atmospheric and oceanic conditions. We analyzed the trends in recent oceanic conditions in the WES after the recent climate regime shift (CRS) that occurred in the late 1990s in the North Pacific. We explored the most important climate factors that affect oceanic conditions and determined their responses to changes in climate change. In the CRS that occurred in the late 1980s, changes in oceanic conditions in the WES were influenced by intensity changes in climate factors, and, in the late 1990s, it was by spatial changes in climate factors. The latitudinal shift of the Aleutian low (AL) pressure influences recent changes in oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the WES. The intensity of the Kuroshio Current and the sea level pressure in the Kuroshio extension region associated with the latitudinal shift of the AL pressure affects the volume of transport of the warm and saline water mass that flows into the WES and its atmospheric conditions. In addition, the fluctuations in the oceanic conditions of the WES affect various regions and depth layers differently, and these variations are evident even within the WES.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Un-Hyang Ho ◽  
Sam-Rang Song ◽  
Hak-Song Pak ◽  
Kang Kim ◽  
Tong-Su Ho ◽  
...  

Abstract Japanese black pine with high salt tolerance may be an important constitutive element sustaining terrestrial ecosystem by playing a role of windbreak forests in coastal areas. Korean peninsula would be a notable region in clarifying distribution shift in Pinus species as it has northern distribution limit of Japanese black pine in Asia. Our main object was to verify genetic evidence of stable northward extension of P.thunbergii populations in D. P. R. Korea. We investigated genetic background of 9 populations existing in Korean peninsula using nuclear SSR markers in relation to shifts in climate factors such as temperature and precipitation. Higher genetic diversity in east group (AR=10.7~19.5) and west group (AR=10.3~10.7) compared to north group (AR=6.7~8.8) was found. When number of putative clusters (K) = 2, whole individuals were divided into west group and north-east group, and when K=3, north-east group can be separated into north group and east group. Phylogeographic relationship verified by means of nSSR markers suggest that substantial increment of air temperature in D. P. R. Korea allowed stable anthropogenic transfer of P.thunbergii forests and that artificial afforestation may bring rapid establishment of forest ecosystem owing to climate change.


2021 ◽  
Vol 923 (1) ◽  
pp. 012079
Author(s):  
Muhammad Jaber Al-Aajibi ◽  
Karar Majid Al-Jiashi

Abstract Military remnants in the Al-Muthanna desert are one of the most important risks facing the local population in the desert, due to its presence in large quantities and in large areas and in many types. Climate factors interacted integrated with each other, which led to the burial of many of these wastes. Sometimes wind erosion shows it, and there is a big role for dust storms and air precipitation to hide the war remnants in Al-Muthanna desert, due to the nature of the dry climate in it, which helped in the disintegration of its soil, which makes up most of the surface of the study area. It was also found that there is a large role of rain in burying many wastes, led to its concealment and the difficulty of seeing it with the naked eye, which required the use of explosive detection devices or dogs trained in that to investigate it. As for the casualties caused by the remnants of war, it has been continuous throughout the years (2004-2020), which claimed the lives of many local residents in the Desert, led by the year 2013, when the number of victims was. When studying the distribution of these remnants in the Desert region, it appeared that there are many areas in which war remnants are scattered in large areas, all of which are explosive and dangerous, such as mines, cluster bombs of different types, mortars and artillery. The Busayeh desert took the largest share of the area and the largest amount of war remnants. The research found that there are areas in which there are war remnants that are not registered with the Civil Defense Department in Al-Muthanna Governorate, such as Al-Juyou, Faydat Al-Faris, and Kilo.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2052 (1) ◽  
pp. 012012
Author(s):  
S Filin ◽  
V Rogalin ◽  
I Kaplunov

Abstract This article is devoted to creation of aerosolized detergent compositions, needful for use during operation of high-precision metal mirrors, as a rule, in field conditions. The created detergent compositions with inhibitory properties allow, simultaneously with carrying out the process of physicochemical cleaning of optical surface from technological impurities, to ensure its protection from the influence of adverse climatic factors during storage, transportation, installation and exploitation of the element with the possibility of its alignment. The high climatic resilience of the protective films investigated in this article, which are formed during the cleaning of the optical surface, is shown. In this case, the optical characteristics of the processed elements after climatic tests do not get worse.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (5) ◽  
pp. 514-528
Author(s):  
Nurmarni Athirah Abdul Wahid ◽  
Jamaludin Suhaila ◽  
Haliza Abd. Rahman

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by two main viruses, namely Coxsackievirus A16 and Human Enterovirus 71. It has been a significant public health disease and a substantial burden all over the world since 1969. Prior studies have shown that climate factors are significantly associated with HFMD cases by using various statistical methods. Therefore, this study aims to review the scientific studies related to climate and HFMD and hence, address the analytical techniques used. This study only includes quantitative studies from peer-reviewed and original papers published in international and national journals from the years 1957 to 2020. In total, there were 522 articles identified; however, there were only 29 studies that linked climate change and HFMD. Based on the articles reviewed, the modelling analysis technique, which includes the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), and the Generalized Additive Mixed Model (GAMM), represents the most popular analysis in identifying the association between HFMD and climate factors. The temperature and humidity showed the greatest impact on the occurrence of HFMD, and the suitable incubation period for all climatic factors was not more than three weeks.


2021 ◽  
pp. 014544552110540
Author(s):  
George Noell ◽  
Kristin Gansle ◽  
Veronica Gulley

Assuring treatment plan implementation following consultation is critically important because implementation is strongly related to outcomes. Treatment implementation has been hypothesized to be influenced by both the nature of the follow-up support provided and contextual variables. However, studies to date have not examined both issues while directly measuring implementation. This study examined treatment implementation following consultation for 48 teachers in public schools who had referred a student for intervention services in a randomized clinical field trial. Participating teachers in the experimental group received Integrated Support (IS). IS includes social influence, planning, and performance feedback elements. IS was compared to weekly follow-up meetings alone. Treatment implementation and child outcomes were markedly superior for IS as compared to weekly follow-up. Three school climate factors were found to be correlated with treatment implementation for the IS group, but not the weekly follow-up group. Participants rated treatment implementation, treatment acceptability, and consultant effectiveness positively and similarly across conditions. The implications of these findings for future work examining school culture, consultation and intervention are discussed.


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