breast cancer treatment
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2022 ◽  
Pawel Winter ◽  
Beata Kotowicz ◽  
Malgorzata Fuksiewicz ◽  
Maria Kowalska ◽  
Agnieszka Jagiello-Gruszfeld ◽  

Abstract Further personalization is needed to improve the outcomes of breast cancer treatment. It is necessary to find new inexpensive and easily evaluated predictive markers. In this study, we determined serum level of Aurora A (AURKA), thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 3 (HER3) by enzyme immunoassay ELISA. We collected peripheral blood sera of 119 women with breast cancer before neoadjuvant treatment and the control group of 47 randomly selected healthy women. After treatment we analyzed clinical data: age, initial TNM stage, tumor receptors expression: estrogen (ER), progesterone (PGR), epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), Ki67, histological malignancy grade, biological subtype, and response to neoadjuvant treatment in residual cancer burden (RCB) classification. Pathologic complete response (PCR) was achieved in 41 patients (34.45%). In univariate analysis patients with higher AURKA levels were more likely to obtain PCR (p=0.039). In multivariate analysis we used the logit regression model with PCR as the dependent. The effect of AURKA concentration ≥4.75 ng / mL on the chance of achieving PCR was found (OR: 3.5; 95%CI: 1.2-10.1; p = 0.023). Other significant PCR factors included: node status (OR: 0.503; 95% CI: 0.263-0.965; p = 0.039), negative PGR expression (OR: 0.104; 95% CI: 0.038-0.284; p < 0.001), and Ki67 >20% (OR: 5.44; 95% CI: 1.24-23,9; p < 0.025). There was no significance in marker concentrations and clinical features nor between breast cancer patients and control group. The outcomes suggest that serum AURKA level is a potential PCR prediction marker in neoadjuvant breast cancer treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations.

Nawfal Alrawi

Cancer is one of the most common diseases around the world and the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer type among Iraqi women, as it represents the highest percentage of malignant tumors in women until 2018. Therefore, women should be aware of the aggravation of this disease, the importance of the periodic examination for early detection for breast cancer, and following the most appropriate means for the treatment to get recovered and, thus, to reduce mortality. To fight cancer, there is an urgent need to search for new effective anticancer therapies that alter the molecular biology of tumor cells, stimulate the immune system, or specifically deliver chemotherapy factors directly to cancer cells without affecting normal cells and reducing the side effects of treatments. In this context, this paper aimed to highlight the therapeutic approaches used in the current researches of breast cancer treatment. Accumulated evidence showed that medicinal plant extracts, and can serve as anticancer agents. The proposed mechanisms were discussed and presented in this review.

2022 ◽  
pp. 110750
Hamendra Singh Parmar ◽  
Aakruti Nayak ◽  
Shreya Kataria ◽  
Versha Tripathi ◽  
Pooja Jaiswal ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 277-306
M Joyce Nirmala ◽  
Shiny P. J. ◽  
Sindhu Priya Dhas ◽  
Uma Kizhuveetil ◽  
Uppada Sumanth Raj ◽  

A new, efficient, and secure clinical approach is increasingly being sought for the treatment of cancer. Nanoemulsions (NE) are projected to have a profound effect on delivering improved healthcare services with significant implications on forthcoming healthcare policies. In contrast to other drug carriers, the key value of NEs is that they can be engineered to target tumor cells and overcome the major challenge of multi-drug resistance. Multifunctional NEs are being investigated by researchers in various fields of study, primarily in the treatment of different forms of cancer. The congruent presence of NEs with contrast agents or certain dyes increases the accuracy of cancer status identification by enhancing the responsiveness of the agents; thus, they are finding application as nanotheranostics. A summary of different NEs and their documented applications in cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on breast cancer, is presented in this chapter.

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