Tumor Cell
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Mayur S. Jain ◽  
Mayur R. Bhurat ◽  
Sunil R Bavaskar

Melphalan Flufenamide is a peptide-drug conjugate composed of a peptide conjugated, via an aminopeptidase-targeting linkage, to the alkylating agent melphalan, with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. Upon administration, the highly lipophilic melphalan flufenamide penetrates cell membranes and enters cells. In aminopeptidase-positive tumor cells, melphalan flufenamide is hydrolyzed by peptidases to release the hydrophilic alkylating agent melphalan. This results in the specific release and accumulation of melphalan in aminopeptidase-positive tumor cells. Melphalan alkylates DNA at the N7 position of guanine residues and induces DNA intra- and inter-strand cross-linkages. This results in the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis and the induction of apoptosis, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. Peptidases are overexpressed by certain cancer cells. The administration of melphalan flufenamide allows for enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to melphalan.1,2,3

2021 ◽  
Zuzana Tatarova ◽  
Dylan Blumberg ◽  
James Korkola ◽  
Laura Heiser ◽  
John Muschler ◽  

Abstract Systematically identifying synergistic combinations between targeted agents and immunotherapies in cancer based on genomic or other static biomarkers remains elusive. Here we integrate two novel high-content and high-throughput techniques, an implantable microdevice to administer multiple drugs into different sites in tumors at nanodoses; and spatial systems analysis of tumor microenvironmental states to describe tumor cell and immunological response signatures and rapidly, within days, identify effective combinations from among numerous agents. We demonstrate in systemic follow-up studies across three mammary carcinoma models that combinations identified by this approach lead to highly synergistic effects. Biomarkers associated with resistance to each agent allowed us to prioritize at least five novel treatment strategies of which the panobinostat/venetoclax/anti-CD40 was the most effective inducing complete tumor control across models. We show that spatial association of cancer stem cells with dendritic cells during immunogenic cell death is a potential mechanism of action underlying long-term breast cancer control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. e202101261
Simon Grelet ◽  
Cécile Fréreux ◽  
Clémence Obellianne ◽  
Ken Noguchi ◽  
Breege V Howley ◽  

Metastasis is the leading driver of cancer-related death. Tumor cell plasticity associated with the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), an embryonic program also observed in carcinomas, has been proposed to explain the colonization of distant organs by the primary tumor cells. Many studies have established correlations between EMT marker expression in the primary tumor and metastasis in vivo. However, the longstanding model of EMT-transitioned cells disseminating to secondary sites is still actively debated and hybrid states are presently considered as more relevant during tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we describe an unexplored role of EMT on the tumor microenvironment by controlling tumor innervation. Using in vitro and in vivo breast tumor progression models, we demonstrate that TGFβ-mediated tumor cell EMT triggers the expression of the embryonic LincRNA Platr18 those elevated expression controls the expression of the axon guidance protein semaphorin-4F and other neuron-related molecules such as IGSF11/VSIG-3. Platr18/Sema4F axis silencing abrogates axonogenesis and attenuates metastasis. Our observations suggest that EMT-transitioned cells are also locally required in the primary tumor to support distant dissemination by promoting axonogenesis, a biological process known for its role in metastatic progression of breast cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. 101174
Sheila Figel ◽  
Meaghan Birkemeier ◽  
Sanam Sahjram Dharma ◽  
Tara Barone ◽  
Emma Steinmetz ◽  

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 1974
Wen Yin ◽  
Tianqi Xu ◽  
Mohamed Altai ◽  
Maryam Orougeni ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a clinically validated target for breast cancer therapy. Previously, a drug-fused HER2-targeting affinity protein construct successfully extended the survival of mice bearing HER2-expressing xenografts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number and positioning of the protein domains in the drug conjugate. Seven HER2-targeting affibody-based constructs, including one or two affibody molecules (Z) with or without an albumin-binding domain (ABD), namely Z, Z-ABD, ABD-Z, Z-Z, Z-Z-ABD, Z-ABD-Z, and ABD-Z-Z, were evaluated on their effects on cell growth, in vivo targeting, and biodistribution. The biodistribution study demonstrated that the monomeric constructs had longer blood retention and lower hepatic uptake than the dimeric ones. A dimeric construct, specifically ABD-Z-Z, could stimulate the proliferation of HER2 expressing SKOV-3 cells in vitro and the growth of tumors in vivo, whereas the monomeric construct Z-ABD could not. These two constructs demonstrated a therapeutic effect when coupled to mcDM1; however, the effect was more pronounced for the non-stimulating Z-ABD. The median survival of the mice treated with Z-ABD-mcDM1 was 63 days compared to the 37 days for those treated with ABD-Z-Z-mcDM1 or for the control animals. Domain permutation of an ABD-fused HER2-targeting affibody-based drug conjugate significantly influences tumor cell proliferation and therapy efficacy. The monomeric conjugate Z-ABD is the most promising format for targeted delivery of the cytotoxic drug DM1.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 5840
Fabien Gava ◽  
Julie Pignolet ◽  
Sébastien Déjean ◽  
Odile Mondésert ◽  
Renaud Morin ◽  

Characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor cell clustering could open the way to new therapeutic strategies. Towards this aim, we used an in vitro quantitative procedure to monitor the anchorage-independent cell aggregation kinetics in a panel of 25 cancer cell lines. The analysis of the relationship between selected aggregation dynamic parameters and the gene expression data for these cell lines from the CCLE database allowed identifying genes with expression significantly associated with aggregation parameter variations. Comparison of these transcripts with the perturbagen signatures from the Connectivity Map resource highlighted that they were strongly correlated with the transcriptional signature of most histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Experimental evaluation of two HDAC inhibitors (SAHA and ISOX) showed that they inhibited the initial step of in vitro tumor cell aggregation. This validates our findings and reinforces the potential interest of HDCA inhibitors to prevent metastasis spreading.

Caleb Stine ◽  
Jennifer Munson

Fluid flow and chemokine gradients play a large part in not only regulating homeostatic processes in the brain, but also in pathologic conditions by directing cell migration. Tumor cells in particular are superior at invading into the brain resulting in tumor recurrence. One mechanism that governs cellular invasion is autologous chemotaxis, whereby pericellular chemokine gradients form due to interstitial fluid flow (IFF) leading cells to migrate up the gradient. Glioma cells have been shown to specifically use CXCL12 to increase their invasion under heightened interstitial flow. Computational modeling of this gradient offers better insight into the extent of its development around single cells, yet very few conditions have been modelled. In this paper, a computational model is developed to investigate how a CXCL12 gradient may form around a tumor cell and what conditions are necessary to affect its formation. Through finite element analysis using COMSOL and coupled convection-diffusion/mass transport equations, we show that velocity (IFF magnitude) has the largest parametric effect on gradient formation, multidirectional fluid flow causes gradient formation in the direction of the resultant which is governed by IFF magnitude, common treatments and flow patterns have a spatiotemporal effect on pericellular gradients, exogenous background concentrations can abrogate the autologous effect depending on how close the cell is to the source, that there is a minimal distance away from the tumor border required for a single cell to establish an autologous gradient, and finally that the development of a gradient formation is highly dependent on specific cell morphology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Eun Young Yu ◽  
Syed S. Zahid ◽  
Sarah Aloe ◽  
Erik Falck-Pedersen ◽  
Xi Kathy Zhou ◽  

AbstractTelomere maintenance and tumor cell differentiation have been separately implicated in neuroblastoma malignancy. Their mechanistic connection is unclear. We analyzed neuroblastoma cell lines and morphologic subclones representing the adrenergic (ADRN) and mesenchymal (MES) differentiation states and uncovered sharp differences in their telomere protein and telomerase activity levels. Pharmacologic conversion of ADRN into MES cells elicited consistent and robust changes in the expression of telomere-related proteins. Conversely, stringent down-regulation of telomerase activity triggers the differentiation of ADRN into MES cells, which was reversible upon telomerase up-regulation. Interestingly, the MES differentiation state is associated with elevated levels of innate immunity factors, including key components of the DNA-sensing pathway. Accordingly, MES but not ADRN cells can mount a robust response to viral infections in vitro. A gene expression signature based on telomere and cell lineage-related factors can cluster neuroblastoma tumor samples into predominantly ADRN or MES-like groups, with distinct clinical outcomes. Our findings establish a strong mechanistic connection between telomere and differentiation and suggest that manipulating telomeres may suppress malignancy not only by limiting the tumor growth potential but also by inducing tumor cell differentiation and altering its immunogenicity.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 1959
Maria Arista-Romero ◽  
Anna Cascante ◽  
Cristina Fornaguera ◽  
Salvador Borrós

Bladder cancer is the 10th most diagnosed cancer, with almost 10 M cancer deaths last year worldwide. Currently, chemotherapy is widely used as adjuvant therapy after surgical transurethral resection. Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most promising drugs, but cancer cells acquire resistance, causing failure of this treatment and increasing the recurrence of the disease. This poor chemotherapeutic response has been associated with the overexpression of the protein survivin. In this work, we present a novel dual nano-treatment for bladder cancer based on the hypothesis that the inhibition of survivin in cancer cells, using a siRNA gene therapy strategy, could decrease their resistance to PTX. For this purpose, two different polymeric nanoparticles were developed to encapsulate PTX and survivin siRNA independently. PTX nanoparticles showed sizes around 150 nm, with a paclitaxel loading of around 1.5%, that produced sustained tumor cell death. In parallel, siRNA nanoparticles, with similar sizes and loading efficiency of around 100%, achieved the oligonucleotide transfection and knocking down of survivin expression that also resulted in tumor cell death. However, dual treatment did not show the synergistic effect expected. The root cause of this issue was found to be the cell cycle arrest produced by nuclear survivin silencing, which is incompatible with PTX action. Therefore, we concluded that although the vastly reported role of survivin in bladder cancer, its silencing does not sensitize cells to currently applied chemotherapies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (47) ◽  
Sarika Heino ◽  
Shentong Fang ◽  
Marianne Lähde ◽  
Jenny Högström ◽  
Sina Nassiri ◽  

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